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THE 

TARKA-SANGRAHA 

OF 

ANNAMBHATTA 

WITH 

CRITICAL NOTES Etc. 

BY 

K. C. M E H E N D A L E, B. A., 

Revised and Enlarged with Introduction and New Commentary 

BT 

D. J. DALVI, M.A., LL.B., 

Sometime. Professor of Oriental Langoa^rs 
Elphinstone College d Bakauddin College 

AND 

PANDIT BHAVANISHANKER SHASTRI, 

Medallist in Nyayashastra, BENARES. 

PUBLISHED BY 

Mrs. RADHABAI ATMARAM SAQOON, 

Bookseller and Publisher , Kalbadem Road , BOMBAY,\ 

1908 . 

Price Rupees ]J. 


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XhdL 32 30. S \/b 

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HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 
FROM THE LIBRARY OF 
JAMES HAUGHTOH WOODS 
1935 


, , . • . , , \ > > • 1 , r 

Copyright and all other rights reserved by the Publisher-'• A 


BOMBAY /. 1 

PRINTED AT THE “ TATV-VIVECHAKA ” PRESS. 


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DEDICATED 


Jh .ost Respectfully 


TO 

Dr. R. <5. Bl^andarkeij, 

MLA*f Ph» D. f I+L «D«f Cwl*EL|i/ toi y 


Professor of Oriental Languages, Deccan College, POONA# 


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PREFACE. 


The special feature of the present edition’is a new 
commentary in Sanskrit compiled mainly for the 
benefit of University-students. It is entitled the 
<< Dipik^l-prakasha ,, because, it aims at expounding 
fully the meaning of the “DipM”, and elucidating 
the various questions embodied in it by its^ author 
Annambhatta. Views of other commentators have 
been sparingly incorporated in order to add to the 
instructiveness without detracting from the concise¬ 
ness and attractiveness of the commentary. During 
my experience as a student and Professor of Sanskrit, 
I have felt that the study of Sanskrit Literature, 
especially, the class of “Darshanik literature” to 
which the Tarkasangraha belongs, ought to be made, 
as much in the light of masterly commentaries as 
4 critical notes in English. The* former method 
alone will enable the student to enter into the spirit of 
the shastra and acquaint him with the style of writing 
and mode of reasoning of ancient scholars. Owing 
to the numerous subjects which divide the attention 
of the University-student, and the subordinate 
positioh assigned to this study in the curriculum, 
the study of Sanskrit has necessarily to be kept within 
circumscribed limits. Consequently, the present 
_$d<£ion is intended to satisfy the exact need of the 
day, in so far as it coyers much of the ground which 
the Lecturer in Sanskrit usually traverses. 


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•' • 
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The Introduction gives a brief resume of the 
" Darshanik” Literature in general and of Ny&ya; 
Literature in particular. Endeavour is also made to 
determine the age of the author Annambhatta. The 
excellent notes, compiled by Mr. K. G. Mehendale 
for the first edition, have been retained with a slight 
revision, “ being ”, as he observes, “ based upon the 
notes of Dr. Bhandarker/’ Further attempt to add to 
the usefulness of the edition has to be deferred for 
another edition owing to the extreme brevity of 
time, the present edition being entrusted to me a 
few months ago. If the present attempt helps the 
student to imbibe the spirit of the Shastra, and to 
take an abiding interest in it, as- well as to go 
through the examination, it will not have been 
made in vain. 

Girgaum Back Road, ^ D. G. Dalvi. 

23rd December 1907. j 


N .f?.—Th? text of the Tarksangraha is in large type, of the Dipikfi 
in medium-type, and of the new commentary the DipikiV-prak&sha in 
small type. 


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RfRiRtfarRR^l rfrtf% I awW irt mi 

go# g|lc>5sf r^fr! g^^nft s£»r rrrrtc; 

irafRR^RtRiRTRiiRRR'q>nR$R%R $f% ^ 3%rot rw 
gpmft ri^rrIr R&t RRcRR^Riim^f^^RtRPi^ft 
R>*)Tft I crst^gi%^gg%?i^NsiMR?i^g5Ra^5txstcq4r I 
rrrrtc ^fRWH^m»n?wtwg4iRiiS[wg«'i4t|R^t'wiR>- 

R»ft RRR: | R#&R gR^m^gg^RftRim^R: *%T: 

j%rr | r RRtnt gRSRRRRWRf sq?rq gR$ gcRRaRtf R*tft | 
RfRFRFiWaiV gR% rr^ffrfwf | rr^r gfl^RBqmtstr- 
<rr ^scjcrrr^ R>ctr% I qsift strR>R: RfR>rtt (Ra?: Rqrft 

pitef^Rt: RRfR: q|RRfpRRR;: R%lfiRIRRlRlTl?a?q RFFR- 

R<‘tf RF&SRRRRT RRfft | 3FRRT HIRER »$R Rf: RFBRtsfir- 

RrarRfRRsq^ffRcr fft I sir: r^rrt% 2r:r^r v ri rfRri 

3fRt rRr'RiTI RfWl%IRI%RKSRRq P% 3?RRRRi§ RTfR%R 
R>F% r’Rr RfSRR^RRI^P^ctSqkqqRrt SSRWJRIRR- 

^5tci I 

ri%% 5 RRR^f^: i Rwt ma ^Rr g^?atc$g- 

ffcsIfRRft RRRRTC RRfR: R^Wra^REliRqtosqrRtR^R- 

*ft^RRRTR&RRiR®ft RRR: | HRIF& R ?*R RRTR&RI*!: HR?R[ 

PfR^ RRRRTC fit^ fJRFRRf RI fsFHTRWlW RSTIRR RRg- 

W HRMWRRWI'RWiRR^RR^tRf rIRRF^R: I RRi3fR> 

RiRpHRi ateRHSIR, I RFWRPEFIRRRR I RR: RRRrtIRI?RF«ir 
10 


Digitized by 



( ■»« ) 


fow l # qi sraRHgsntfa wft9| qq*?qi- 

» ^ ^ I 


H*n ^^-*3 <i«wfol%: I qt qRp» 

qgf%*q <#ta ?r *pqra s$Rf ^qf sfeqt >i#qf 

aiRF.^'^f s^HftiW^tRFiRft I <rhrr wtatm- 



# q^twfo #t » 



53?tRi} ?ftq $*t 5Wwftft|g?«5qRR' 


Bqtnq^wmi^qf qg&bl«hR& 

Sri 4 gire^i qqRtWkrfir qjfo qffl:qR&t qRjsqfoi?f qsfri 
mraqi^irfe SRWW foreiRRi: gswfiffeftSt tatq?J i m- 

rtw^qTfraftqm: 

S^qmTRRfoiforer: i ailqfNqij Hffawttwiqr qgfif 
^nfarq: RqRrWtqr. «f$Rt qgfomfam wi#t ( 
?ri afa TOBn^Twi^R^i^nF^fqi sRr q>$faeRr | 
rffiwii^ «qpif ot^r q^mt fw%mm ffsqraqiqt qfri 
w-qifarcr«i q?t srpr^r*# i fiprtRiwRiRtsq- 


gfiJjmiqf^iRi wci qiq^fjqii^qiqr ftntnrra^ 
fE«fi°g?KmiM ^RPRi%mqiT%% | qgfi $*liSi a?«ra! 
WRfflRtnq|fqt^ | ^3 flRSRtsRKt^ w^ts^R- 


<Wnfaf§?)i «3i?Rmw5tRi4 q qsqfon | 
m|ig q§| qft »m#t qfonf^qt qqfit | a* 

nM gMs^qqq^fRiqRi^qi^'noit q. #qtoft*iql 


Digitized by ^.ooQie 



( ^ ) 

qfcqqftqr#ifo>qq qtfq; i qqqrqgslfa q^g 
*5 qqfo | 

qqr 4qm?qiqf 'jr^qtq l qqftqt q: i^qm^qt- 

^i?q qsfa: SRR®? ^sftqiq: | qfur# qg§ ^ 

qqft qqr wmrlg ftg*g wmt <qqrrqft|qqT’ 

qrqtqft^qHrqf qt qqnqqrai ‘jfaqf q: qqffi qtaqrPrqiq- 
qt^qqq fa ^qqi^jrf qi q qgqsqqtq^qrqfa 'jftsqrftg *4’ 
qqirf | % q si^q q qq% qi^q[^=q% iNfo qft qjqrt | 
^g^^^eqftqRTO'qinsjqcq^qiqft qft Jjqfqraqqtaqq q?r- 
qqq. | qq? gqsgftrfts®^ I qqtf gqqnq. | t lfo rr O ft 
g gqcqqf^Rnqiq, I 

^qtqfqqnnt wtftrenftqWr. qq^Mitw^ | 
qqqugtq: qqftqmqft^qcq qffasu | ^qqq^fw^^iqq- 
qlq ^q nftq^gqfaqrqqqqqtqTft qjqsqqfi: qfriqgjft | 
qqr g qiqqr^gte ?<it qqft qqr q qq r wftq^qiqqqqft- 
gqrqpr qrtqk'qT qrffcr > gq #fqF ri qqqqq?qtq)TKiq> ri qqq* 
qgqtqrqf qffaqqiiqTqifftqrq: I qq: q^rcr; qs^Rmiraft- 
»iq; qq; '^qfcrrct qft qq%Tiqftq5fcq*&?ff gsqqrcwql 
qq q qqqq’yn'j^qftq gqrqgfqqi) qq q qqqnrqf qg^BHf 
nq% qjft qqqqftft qrqfrtqri qtFFgqreqftft | 

qn>K i ^ ^iR'irbq, | qqr qqrrf^qqqqrqr <trciq: srirt- 
^^?R}q)qftqrqtq^qqqq^q: q*w<i<#wft%qq%ift- 
qmftfaq q^ qsqoifSrfir I qqqrgqt qqqfttlqi: i 

smm# g qrat q*t ajiwig<iqlqif^@ilq>^qiqqqn%- 

I «q«i' 


«nqq ^igi^q g 


Digitized by 



( ) 


n^wWr^'itf'iRin jRgft^TPPft ^ f^it «i ^T^Rtn^S 
difa nwisi Imr fSprawsRftft I 


sftn? wjn^nTrctpsp^ ^jtuct: ^ wwisram-’ 

R'WTrlfrWl'^- 


3*Rin. I 1HP? 9^.1% ^'ifeswwjsn^ I aTOflWwf- 
<raVrc>*t ^w^m^ssmin 1 ^ *»rj #FWf^rfaTrt- 
^wretoiiii. R^ts^jqrPi«j% m 
^^jraHWna swarf 

'Wt*WISW:rf^KW«'*rf 
Wt I fm: 51<l<lii^< , m cTFqi^ sfrftwW 
Rwhk'm a*siKtft a^qrni%^ , w5oiftfcr I rfrfN ^ srf|^- 
sfares siwwrf ^ 1 w sfo>& swm 

wWfclRdH. I 

grpidi w ir J i j i g^qqR^K ui a M ^K f M^Ktid^ ^ s# cr^- 
fiRtiH l w srffcrag^ s^Hf 

s#wn I ^iftftTPRT jjdM win I ^rarfRrf’ 

FfiFrllfts'ioi %frf 1 


smpi ^srafrf- 

W1HI( I 3Fi3 g i+%fa 1 *8fr 

> wrcn^i’it *rar 1 

^Rqpn% I W)SRHI % ««l?m g irc ftwtft | <W1lt- 
rfS#rffcllt!taR®IPt ap|%frf I 3ig»RR* srf^n I 
ijrftswwrf^r # dl«IMKHft«nl&: l 


Digitized by ^.ooQle 



( 'S' 9 ) 


f?^r: n ^ l| 


R?m^n s’wIUpRisaffn i q*TT|w^ ^ 

flifpra^r I 

Mr, ’rn#pft, MwifrMhHf, ^^tcI Mr- 
Pre^ ^ II II 


Mlfa i wifiKHk^rawnra M)w i arr+KiKHi^ 
«nfoWTR ffa I 1 ‘*§N 

m' ?ra f^5srflfM3BTO^M«R ;| rMrr| 

^o^ffatTOcU ffit 
fra=q ?aw# I 



. __f\__ „ 




gpr: upmRt I 3?q%: it i spfa I (?) I 

I ^l+IVKRMniFWlWr ^TFT ffit I TO5TC- 
Mrftorwr aH f fefift i srft%%wrfoOT|ft: sricftfft- 
spRi; ’ ft% 3IW: (wm?t sf^pft 


l 



«t>Mi<^4 c! 5T ff%: ) | 


5I9W 

« i ftw» i *Rrfor 1(^)1 

I MdWRMlElW I W ‘ aprer > ffrr I 
qfl°*u(ik<» i w ‘ qnt: ’ I gfiqlPfcw : ni<i<ilfll«»Mifo- 


Digitized by ^.ooQle 



('»< ) 


^Romri: ‘ -iWtt ’ t ( 5TfcT$tft ZWZ'.t 

rTc^fn^lOT ^Wg;^ <T5T tfrt:, «f£T tfcf a?^R ) | 

3Tcw*n4 



s*WWRt I *R? 


I (?) I 


'Nn%i ?fti 



s^ramHR%f^OTW»iR %rfN> ift I 


spiNrort w#» 

qtr * li ^ ll 

MK’ltUlft | ( Hqa i <wwi&fe a faq)ffl% ^ KW^hH^ v wi *ny?f; 

ftroftpn i sR*ne i sft« %•) 5 j^iPri n^w?Ntfa3far-i 
^+J)icl<ii^+4Kt!l s ?I[»1RI«4NlHm4i%r=|tt I ^^N^TORlc^ 
'ww; ’ sj<ften I ‘'^RTrl gl g w; ’ 

stfan %^R(^g5n^: i g snafit wh<k4 i 

TOW: I 3^«yMHI4dr<|M(^'HSlf^tpRII^«IJlF5IP7t^ 3#- 
fa>: | <5W#5lP#sf? | ( ^5j qft ^i^cfHcT ’ a#fig>l-. 
spfi^SW^ 5ii^iq% | sfe <133 5=TT^cfH^ HWP»: I «ri^- 
a '%*Rsppft | «rni%i*n%SEq?T'frr‘i3 <r 
stffcwR; I wnwfo ^•KPls^tiinMw spr wjpqftsft 
3R<fft: I SRfft: I *J$1% Mi«i4)5|HI»MI'M«%' 

PFgrcasRflfM^ima I awgtipmpimwf’. 
^RR9RnHripn?i#l: I wwl a *%p=wflT*isMi(<lRfa l 


Digitized by ^.ooQle 


( ^ ) 

« 

%>qd i fcw i feq ‘wfer f% srqrqf * ’Mhft- 

fa% 5 ^: l <ra l srm^Rfi^K %qqq*q ftqqaqflqqcqw, | 
‘ awrawi^ *tm I ^iM?i>: i awqFnsrcuw. I Efcwmtf s 
smpnqsqflsi m%qpqq i ?% nra: I ‘awtqpqq: sriftfirp | 
siiqtiiw EpjiNi^q^if^ qrqqpq ’ f% qq'fat: I 

=ne(-5i5q-fifri3T^mT«n«-^s^-'Htm-^nf? : MRHi: <RqfTqri%:?fct- 
wt^w: ’ f% =qmi% qrqqiqqjqiqigTKqRq.q ‘ wta ’ 1 % I 

aw 

*#ti 

5Pi ii it 
qt q fffi rq l ‘ 

q*? 5:sr-qq«f% sftqg’ ?i% gjqqrfH wig I 
(ammfort qwni Ig aHfe t w i yw i w i wm ^ft) qqfatqNqf I qt»I J 
|q%T #n: I (s&* qiqq*ifrr) r»t i^gt |%qf q*g: | %: 
5K , fcTqrqTc«wraq: I %cw% q<qin l q^ qm: I atqqqf qh?: I 
# q fqqqraftwjgqmiqwrcw^rci |:«s&: (*r 

^?TRT^0TT Vt f H^RT ) | 5RI5R 

iGsma^wfo* I g?twl q?FWi%: | sfl*nf%q>%q sngqir- 
ms«?; re^Ri: I %w %*w | q =q srom^. I tRqggcar: 
qwt qp?: | ^qqqmqqcft fqftffigq;qt qqq; | prappnqqsrcr 
fqqn^i | wi qro qtqrqqp: gqfTWwrf^qrq^qTqqq'-qq: i 
ajrqqrqpqpfft sgqwq «rahrc s^q ^qo} ^ i arep* 

®ii%: | qrq c q%‘qtfqwqqi^q , :qlq | jqiqq^qflisqm r -qqii%qqwq- 


Digitized by 



(<°) 

Pt?H>iqW>I%«n snfR: I qtf^Sqsflilgftn^qrcg, | sri^ 
fT#t: sffiffRR, RRftlftffa:, Sf%I#qra:, ^fKH, apft- 
•tTCH, an^frai%, WpR, awwwa, s^p#R 

3^^^nw^W^«iiftOTs»mTgfH§3%^sV , i fa* 
gqtsqjgfaftsqfati 5 # l^tqrasr fafa*iHTft I gqfa I 
qg q^qsH^qft sififa# qfif ^ 15 ^: sifa: 
q^r^RRn | fftfat | sifapwqtqw wn^q sfa- 
jgqqimg. | w®i^ sri^r^ng. I 
qg qwfcrf qsMnfr fat | 

qfaqfaq gi&qgpicqrau *qjq»Tfa q qgtqRrcg I 
fafanqfaqtq*q ?qeq*q$q?qig, I ggq^^jsq q ufatgtfc 

atqftftfaaitt I Hg^qq>fa#&PH>3(iqfa% ftfa 

( 5PR^R5ET R i%£(qr cT«F# *F5$TH I tfpTTCRWT fTcTCtf* 

RR*IR¥T ^JTcT $l%SPRc^^l^Rcn^R^T f^T’sfeRT JRR*R- 
^T^l cRTcf ^ fnfoTTRR, fn%^parc^^Rrs^TW^ cSSFTCtfffcril 
( tfr. 4>.) crcsfan^r temVcfi i “ ?fuTRR>iraJTRrf% ” f^n^r sir^ 
s^rr; i fTcf^n^ sti^RT^kmraRTsTR sr$bh i * ^ ftqwntr 
SIirRtfif: I ^R*RRl«S^ffaRRR*TR^I ^T«l^, ftl^nSFSSft-* 
R^MRtWT^R^T #ERT<t I 5T ^R3*W: ^jR- 

^m^msw^R^RRRT3*RR > (*4 sr&tr^ ypv ^ $&\m 
flftlr sjfr , WPmR: <T$rlRT! ^R<JR*rPRR[R^?^ 

HlcfSRR ^TR ^strrr ^TRTlR^Hl^ ) 

li^g^q; | gst | srafa ffaAswqqmfR&q fafrftgrcr 
swq^qwng. | q g swraqfqroiqR^faraif: I 


Digitized by ^.ooQle 


( <! ) 

qsnft sjfqqrqq%ifq inwR ’ raare e wK! . i 
fesifrit: I 

•13 “ «q)ft«ftq wfffimt q^r ” f?R 
jr(W> I qmwfgR^n^:^RKMii%^Trw^rat’«HT^ I 
qqt«i . pnfWW'iffa #: qt%qrqifiqqi#snqf 

qmT ft q qftq i ^ft i “qa?q ft%qro i mw f wm- 

q*rt ft q ft q qpqfftft i w^gj ftqfrq: i ?N “q^ftslq- 
qmswnwqqqj wq+ww nw qiqqro: put | qfqq; 
feqwiq “ qrcsfaqfNti nqrai.” fft ftaqnft»qq«faq 

qfsq qs?«& | “ afKRq<ST% <WqqM §qR.” 
fe* foqnspJ 3W ffit ^ | q | qmwrqqNm i%qqr- 
qftq wwiqi s wf fr qqqrc ft^ i foqmsqmaq igj fogwtfi . I 
q>ftq#n qRrsj^ qi«rmt sqm: l 3t*^fMfthwri^qwr- 

*tq gfoffi^tggtwq fosr qtsqq ^ fe^q ftsq^Rmi 

m* n a& q qtqiWqq. i qqft qri> qqWift ftqmqtqia. i 
frmfcflft q% s-qJltasHWMMW siqeqifeqftmRt I 

*qt q^fcqt t «i3f03qmt l ^a: qqft I %r- 
q%q ts^ q<^q: ffqi# q^q&Mi^qraiWi 1t§>3 ast- 
qsqiCIqftq I qqkt^q sw \ 

qq q ^cq^ t qitfa SR& 5tfe: | 3WlW eWtafta q 

3 m w%*f$a i 

q q i ^ p qw M<qn3 iq q ^nsc I qqril “ mar qfc s*sq: 

qjqsql qqpqt ft i ^ qi ft q s q: ” ?ft $fqr swanW afqww- 

fq>ft %fq«hqqi? I ^iiAftwiiwwft «<q«w*qwqi- 

11 


Digitized by ^.ooQle 



( ) 

Plf'l: JJ^ajtFaiawaaaaisaiaRI. I *t'i^ , wlPfo4l5fta> , W£KI 
anWnft atiilMatftMa. | aaait g?ato%alafofaar 
tfcr f% 'ff^<^ilffigOT ra< i inH> ft afc^t anfaftaia- 
anfaat^iaaret t# aaiafrauaiai-aHi i aft 

^aafafclrcja^a ai% a^araasat anirt arot | *iafa 
aNraiaa’t I ftwnfiaft^t: ^l aa ia aiwww. i “ afa fa^ar 
I apt: 'fat ftqfr aaap ” WWHK l ffi Nm l 

aj “ asnfi^PM a^afe a*i#: ’ ^ 3 r?- 

ataafawMiWjiii): agaa fft | “ 
fal<nt i ?iif a fta^iawtfta aata^i awtrat- 

awNfl $a*aa># as ” stai^ar a>$nt sjiatn«tfaj#n5- 
ara. i anasfa farataa a ansaa .1 awWtarata atesr: 
<rca aataaftft af *a«ftaa. II 

srcwta f^ar q^rerfarff : li 
(aara wk= afnafot# =w: aiwroariai^ gi i fc i i h ft l ft ) 'i 

^Na^tni^kla an^nai a^Hfar n 


a^qar anrefra |»frci§;<4i<*4i: n Ml 



‘’ataanaft’ tgaiftaar #rci%t$rci%ar ^aaaasifpa- 

JOTni *RIHT. 




Digitized by ^.ooQle 


a&&73:—sfcfW3 ^ ct4 

^NR: ( 3T. ) 

(^it.). ^ 1 i 



rfi—In this q >4 t. e. the object is shown, that is, we 
must take here q;ft&r ^cq%, that is, the termination ar 
has the sense of * 6 $. Thus ci% means things that 
are discussed and established by a process of 
reasoning; conclusions that are reasoned out. 


I. 


ij^p}—qq^J aHk that which a word signifies, hence,some¬ 
thing which is namable or expressible by a qq. 

Some divide the qqr*fs into ( 1) *nq or positive and 
( 2 ) arora or negative. *nq includes the first six. 

55*1—Substance, fgn —Quality or property. —Act 

or action. 

e HT FV —Generality or common nature. It is thus 
defined:—That which is eter¬ 
nal, one and is intimately connected with indivi¬ 
duals more than one. 

ftita—Particularity or individuality, —Perpe¬ 

tual intimate relation, arora—Non-existence or 
negation of existence. 

These seven qq$s are properly called categories, 
that is. an enumeration of certain general properties 
or attributes that may be predicated or affirmed of 
existing things. 

II. 


Earth, water, light, air, ether, time, relative space, 
soul, and the internal organ (mind) are the nine 
substances. 


Digitized by 



Dlpild:— 

As there exists the tenth SR called ?R^r, how can 
you say that there are only nine substances ? 

The “ <R:^g &c.” proves this fact viz. tR^is 
a separate *aj as it has all the qualities of a 5 R, for 
instance, it has motion which is a ( and a 5 R is 
Thus the fact that cR^is a is proved be¬ 
cause we actually have the experience of black dar¬ 
kness moving and because it has action. 

—Perception or knowledge which does 
not prove to be false. 

Now taking <R^as possessing these qualities, it 
cannot be included among the five *a?s beginning with 
snarer,.as they have no colour while ?rb has blue-black 
colour. 

As cR^ has it cannot come under qg because 
■qg is devoid of colour. Again it cannot be ^g be¬ 
cause it has not got a perpetual motion which qg has 
and because it has not R& i. e. the quality which 
makes us feel it. 

Also it cannot come under because it has 
not any white shining colour and because it has not 
any hot touch as light has. 

It cannot come under water, because it has not, 
like water, the property of producing a cold sensa¬ 
tion and because it has a blue-black colour, while 
water has a colour which is 

It cannot come under aMt because it is void of 
smell and touch. 

“ Therefore if you, O says the “ say 

that ?R^ is a tenth substance, it will not do because 
darkness has simply the form of the absence of light, 
that is, it is nothing but the absence of light.” 

Thus is not a substance which has colour, 
for it can be perceived by the eye without the assis¬ 
tance of light. 

As or the absence of light caq be perceir 


Digitized by ^.ooole 



ved without the assistance of light, so also can be 
similarly perceived. 

Therefore as is not a separate substance; 

so also rW^is not a separate substance. 

Light is the cause of correct occular perception of 
a possessing colour. i. e. a is seen by the eyes 
by means of light and such is not the case with 
that is, it can be seen without the assistance of light. 
Therefore darkness means the absence of developed 
generally that which enlightens or illumines 
everything. Hence the perception u awftfa ” is 
false ; and so there exist only nine *sqs. 

Thus to sum up: 

“If it be objected, there is a tenth substance 
darkness (why is it not enumerated? for it is 
recognised by perception, aud substantiality () 
belongs to it because it is possessed of colour and 
action ; and because devoid of odour,it is not earth; 
and because it possesses dark colour, it is not water 
&c.: we reply that it is not so, becanse it is illogical to 
imagine another substance when it is necessarily pro¬ 
duced by non-existence of light. The notion that it is 
possessed of colour is erroneous. The notion that it 
possesses action is also an error occasioned by the 
departure of light.” 

No coloured objects would be seen without 
light. 

Darkness can be seen without light. 

Darkness is not a coloured object. 

N. B.—Darkness was affirmed to be a substance 

by the fliers. 

- :o:<- 

The Definition in Sanskrit is the unfoling of such 
properties of the thing to be defined as are ordinarily 
understood as characteristics of that thing only i. e. the 
essence of the thing. then=the characteristic pro¬ 
perty which distinguishes the thing to be defined (5*39) 


Digitized by 



from all other things. In order that a 553 m should be 
correct it must be free from the following three faults:- 

( 1 ) 3T5*nft:—Non-existence of the characteristic in a 
portion (tr^r) of the thing defined; e . g. 

TOW:. The is tow. Here the characteristic fa^T- 
does not extend to a who is a tow. 

( 2 ) —When certain properties exist in the 

thing defined as also exist in a thing not defined. 

Cf. m TOW SfcfaWT 

(3) —Where the characteristic stated is not 

found in the whole range of the things to be defined. 
55swnrw=the whole 55^T. Cf. Ufa 
m SP^i^TO^TOW: ( T. K.) 

55^iw thus becomes a which is free from these 
three vitiating qualities and it is called aiWTWRWW^ *. e. 
peculiar or distinguishing quality. 

-:o: - ■ 

N. B. the student will do well to read what follows 
after he has read section XLVI. 

The three faults which vitiate a definition reduce 
themselves to ^cTORfs:— 

3lo*n& reduces to which is a subdivision of Fl#- 

qrf^r. For instance tecT I qteqiq. wfa 

q$h>& q>fa^cTOsfe^: 1 reduces to to- 

^wgsqfaiWR. For instance fosTcr 

wpauwrqqft wftwiP& #cw tos: sjfrqR: 1 reduces- 

itself to For instance 

<*5wq*q$r q% wi% siwtto *qw%l£: 1 
-:o:- 

A is commonly defined as forowt gwrwwt qr qsqxj;. 
But this definition does not hold good in all cases. 


Digitized by ^.ooQle 



(*) 

gq^ w —The possession 

of the pqcPtir% or the possession of gqs is the definition 
of the ^ni% of 55 *. (wfas are signified by words which 
have c3 added on to them. They are always found 
associated with their corresponding aiftrs and can be 
conceived indendently of their aff^rs ; as nfa &c.) 

“The possession of gqs is not the proper definition 
or distinguishing property of 

To this the says:— 

‘If you, 'j'TOsfr, say that the definition does 

not extend to (i) a ^ (for instance, a ^2 in the first 
moment of its existence), and to (ii) a ^ immediately 
destroyed after its production (and therefore there 
being allowed no time for the development of the gqs 
which are found in a common q2) it will not do; be¬ 
cause my definiton means: A ^ is that which poss¬ 
esses a snft which exists in the same place with gqa 
and which is different from the spirit/ 

Now how is this modified definition of ^ ap¬ 
plicable to the case of a q2 in the first moment of its 
existence and to the case of a q2 which is immediately 
destroyed after its being produced, there being no time 
allowed for the gqs to develope \ 

A srs in the first moment of its existence has not 
its gqs developed as in the case of a common *J2; as 
well as that q2 which is destroyed after its production- 
both of these q2s have not their gqs developed. There¬ 
fore as in there two ^28 there are no gqs, they cannot 
de called s^s. But really they are *wjs and this 
is accounted for by saying that both of them poss¬ 
ess the — 55 ^ which 3ni% is found associated with 
gqs in ordinary or existing q2s. 

Thus in these two cases the definition amounts to 
saying that a is that which possesses a which is 


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different from the CTiroft and which is found associated 
with 5°i8 in an existing i. e. in a qz in which the *pis 
are developed. 

A ^ is also defined a TO3T$TOPTO<<to^ CTC- 

N. B .—In the modified definition of *wr, if the 
words TOfa* were omitted, then the 
would be gqc* or or even TO, and thus there would 
be an atfclsqrfH and this is obviated by putting in the 
word TOfro 


In connection with this the following may also 
be mentioned:— 

There are twe theories viz. that (i) a is the 
cause and gpr the effect, and that (ii) the cause must 
exist.before its effect. Thus we can find a **i (which 
is the cause) without the g<>Ts (which are the effect), 
for instance, in a ^2 in the first moment of its exis¬ 
tence. But in the case of a common ^2 the 511s exist 
and there the is. Therefore we can safely say that 
it is not that every should necessarily have a g*r 
but that whatever has a «y>r is a 

The TO 31 TRT comprehends three smfts viz. g<n^ 
and i. e. it is found in these three siffirs. Thus' 

TO 




1 

j 


g°Tc^. 


The ^lihs of the 9 *ars sums of 24 ^h%s of the 
| Gunas five 

*12*31, &c* 

Here to is or arm with respect to g^ra & 
which are am or with respect to to. These 
again are or szim with respect to their sub-species* 


Digitized by ^.ooole 


( » ) 

These are relative terms.' The range or extension 
of one may be more or less than that of another. 
Thus sfaftc* is with Respect to & am with res¬ 
pect to t . . 

III. 

„ —Dimension. —Separateness or mu¬ 
tual difference, Disunion, —Being fur- 

therwards. —Proximity or being hitherwards, 

—Gravity, —Adhesion, Intellect. 

^—Dislike. snjrW—Effort or volition. sresrc-Impres- 
sion or self-reproduction. 

Dipik& 

A is defined as 3°i: or 

falFl. 9^ :—Being different from %sq & gor is that 
which possesses a If the words flift 

were omitted, there would be an arfcRifa on * 3 aj & 
because they also possess srrj. 

The Def. is a good definition on the 

supposition that we understand 9®R$jjjfa. It is also good 
in asmuch as 9*!^ is the peculiar property of 9<»T. 

Some say that 555^, and are more 9°rs 

but they are not so, because is nothing but the 

of 9^. Also and depend upon the loose 

or close enzpraMRi, u e . the of the parts of a body 

of which a mass is composed. 

e In the following subjoined verses, the various 
are described each with the 9«rs existing in it:— 

Wr 9^ ^ \ 

wi ismi £r|t 1 

r wgw: f%tn^ ^3$$ r '■ 

»nw «wr 1 


Digitized by kjOOQle 



Sflffcwf m t£T ( 1 . e. I 

qjraf^h: era % i 

ter^ra: <ra, i 

TOTCW^li: <ra, *TW% U ". 

IV. 

TORT—Motion or going from one place to another. 

Dipika :— 

mk is defined as qfo ^ira^rf^r^ (f^ig^ra- 

en^rra S 3 RTHr*J® )—Being different from *rafa, that which 
is the indirect or formal cause of 3 #t, is sft. For 
instance, fSR'RFT is the 5$ and it must, according to 
the definition, be the formal cause of fsrc^TW#!. It 
can be shown in the following manner:— 

bears a ?TOfo%: WWW in relation to $SR. 
Again. bears a WWW in relation to 

3SR. Therefore fsiwwr is the 3 TWTqnf^R°i of 
( Or i. e, fsr^rw^T *rs u e. wi^ 

i. e. fsrwwr f3r^T^ra^rrwwT^T^.) 

If in the definition of the words *rW$T?rI 
were omitted, then wifa itself would come under the 
definition of because wira is the of wiN 

itself. Thus—is to be proved the formal 
cause of ^RfsrcwiPT. § 3 R is the wwift^rc^ of 
which is the in this case and $ 5 k is the 3 $ &c. &c. 

Another example is and the in this 

is wi &c. are included in wh and thus there is 

no objection to there being five kinds of motion. 
is void of quality and it is transitory. 

V. 

OTTF*? (common nature or community) is of two 
kinds viz, (highest genus) and am-SWira (subs- 


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tantiality applicable to species). The first is more 
extensive and the second is less extensive* 

Cf. “ sWi WVlW I 

fmr <roniNft 11 

t * *r *ift: i 

<RFR<raNft II 

«n«icOTTO^ I” 

From this it may be seen that in the case of gMfc 
is the qrotfRi and with reference to *a*i?*, gMfal is 
arwsniF*. Thus *rc«nn** and srwawi^ are merely relate 
ive conceptions* 

Only **„ $®i and haVe Sift and SS- 

Sis and aisis have no Sift. 

sisfs cannot have sift, because snn«i itself meailrf 
general nature that rtins through all the members of a 
class; and one general nature cannot exist in another 
general nature. For instance, $$<*, Ac, are hi 
themselves Clifts and they each cannot have another 
stift because such a thing would involve tisin confusion, 
as such a thing would go on ad infinitum and this 
process would have a called ( Cf. M l - 

i*wt stftr s i i3^4taft£i3git i). 

*ift is defined as ftftg aifawlg *n gf% zqH i 35 *- 
mentions the following objections in making a. 
swft:—* v 

ii i mftimd- 

ng: u-r-* 1 There is no generality or genus, where only 
one individual exists, or where there is no difference 
pf individuality, or where there is confusion, or where 
there is a retrogress in infinitum, or where an idea is 
changed to its contrary, or where there is no relation.’ 

2 


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VI. 

Individuality abides in eternal substances. These 
substances are gra raifo re* and the atoms of the 
*3^3. It is the cause of the perception of exclus¬ 
ion. It affects a particular or a single object which 
is devoid of community or 8Uffav. 

cannot have Why ? aflfo is something 
common and something common cannot exist in 
which in their very nature are distinct. They always 
distinguish one thing from another. The very idea of 
a is difference; and differences cannot be made 
to reconcile in the possession of something which i$ 
common to two or more things. So it is impossible 
to find out a common likeness in a group of unlikes 

frsr? exists in foc*up*fs for they are distinct from 
one another and why they are distinct cannot be told. 
4*4 *«*#s such as sz, m & c. have not for their 
is accounted for by the existing in their constitu¬ 
ent parts and the in these constituent parts is 
accounted for by the in the constituent parts of 
these parts and such a thing goes on until we come to 
the TOngs which have a Ms and which cannot be 
further divided. 

In the text it is said that fasfcs exist in Pm&fs, but 
this is contrary to experience; for we see fa&rs in e^r- 
PBpzis as well. Thus one table might be distinguished 
from another by certain characteristics. The exclus¬ 
ion of atftroavs is accounted for by saying that the dist¬ 
inction of one table faom another depends virtually 
upon the distinction of the atoms of one table from 
those of another and all things are composed of the 
atoms which are ftftgais* But what distinguishes the 
ultimate atoms is ftfo or individuality and since atoms 


Digitized by ^.ooole 



( \\ ) 

ar& 9PPii, the fMtas also existing between each of the 
atoms and the rest are ai«rer. 

A TOTHS 1S defined as 

*IFR5Ff ^ 'WTS: 3 \\ ( ). 

Cf. ffcnmtwlsw factor: i % ^ a^ftf^ire i naft 

TOT^rt i %qi i («.) 

Vide Section LXVII. 

VII, 

The sixth category, SR 3 T*, coinherence or inti¬ 
mate relation is of only one kind* 

N. B,—It will be better to read, in connection 
with this, Section LXVIII. 

Now spot* has no because sppir being a part¬ 
icular kind of relation is only one and of its own 
kind ( ). 

Or srara has no because it is not in the relat* 
ion of intimate relation, jotj, fpt and only are in 
die relation of spot*, < etgwp* >, 

VIII, 

Negation is of four kinds:—« 

(i) srpmro or antecedent nan-existence(non-existence 
of anything before it began to exist, as a jar not 
yet made). The non-existence of a *2 produced 
to-day is its sprat*, yesterday, 

( 2 ) sNstrat* Emergent non-existence or cessation of 
existence, (the non-existence of a thing after it is 
produced, as of a jar when it is smashed to pieces). 
(3) a^P^raT* or absolute non-existence as SRRPh 

&c t 


Digitized by ^.ooole 



(4) or mutual non-existence, as TO qtf i 

(the nature of <K as^2 is denied). It means 

the or difference of one thing from another, or 

the absence of the nature of one thing in another. 

A *• 

Now awra has no sift because si# is that is, 
it exists in existing things or it is something positive; 
and epira means non-existence. And hence am* cannot 
have any relation to a thing through the relation of 
^ ( erawpi ), 

Vide Section LXIX. 

r ■ ‘ f . ’• ' IX, 

Translate : Earth possesses the property of odour 
which is its distinguishing quality. It is of two kinds: 
eternal and non-eternal—eternal in the form of atoms, 
non-eternal in the form of products. The earth in the 
form of a product is of Jthree kinds» organized body, 
organ of sense and inorganic mass. The body is that 
of us men. The Organ connected with it is the nose 
(or properly, sen$e of smell) which is the recipient 
of odour, and is at the . tip of the pose* And the inorg* 
anic mass is clod, stone, &c, 

N. B, It is an accepted usage^with the Vais’eshika 
and Nyaya Schools of philosophy to begin a treatise 
with wjor and q<fc?r in order. Now is Enume¬ 
ration, is Definition and q(fejr is s g ff gqwft s g qqfqg q - 
frqnc;-«-A discussion whether all the things 
all properly enumerated and whether the that is 
given is proper or improper, qtNtf is thus tantamount 
to investigation * Division in only a particular kind 
of ; hence there is no addition to be made, 

Dipikd .— 

Following the order of enumeration the 
gives the of (The part is called SRfta, 


Digitized by kjooole 



fc enumerating the wis by name. The order of beg¬ 
inning the enumeration depends upon one’s own will.)- 

gfafl is that which has smell. There is certain 
fr* made up of fragrant and stinky parts. The 
formed from such a combination has no smell as a 
whole, because the disagreeable odour neutralizes the 
fragrant odour; still the V* is So the above 

viz, sfoft becomes narrow or has the fault 
of 

To this objection the says: 14 You should 

hot, O say that the or perception of 

smell which is there in that *«i cannot be explained.’* 

( STfrnftr—A tiling’s not being reasonable; which 
cannot be shown to be otto or intelligible.) 

44 There is smell, but that is of the parts and the 
has as a whole no smell.” 

Then say that there is Rww ; but this is not ad¬ 
mitted by us. 

(The objector tries to make out that a compound 
^ as a whole cannot have smell and therefore to such 
a the above definition does not apply. There the 
if* is perceived and the view of the objector does not 
explain the actual perception of there). 

Again it is a rule that the must precede its 
to is the and the in it is the for the 
Smell cannot exist without the TO. But in the case 
when a TO is formed one moment and immediately 
destroyed the next, you cannot perceive smell in the 
TO, for there was allowed no time for the *f* to deve¬ 
lop. Therefore in this case also the definition hat 
the fault of wiftr. ■ ' 

Now the gives an answer to the as fofc 

lows ;~What you, O say is not the case, 


Digitized by 



( l» > 


is /. e., is that which has 

a which exists ia the same place with and 
which 31 # is directly included in t. e., which is 
the next less extensive after (toir 

nm :). < For if we had said sMl is 
this definition would have extended to to-JFSPC, &c. ; 
and being applicable to jp^c*, it would also have exte¬ 
nded to 3 T^, c! 3 i^r &c. as they are s^s, Again, it ia 
not the case that every sfMt has or wherever there 
is there is also «iwRqn#. Therefore to exclu¬ 

de this, we say ‘ qaranRiftTO/ Thus it is applicable 
to gfMt alone ). 

The way in which the definition should be stated 
is this: wherever there is «f* there is sMt and not> 
wherever there is there is »p«i. The definitions 
in the text 4 Earth is a smelling thing ’ is thus modi¬ 
fied into 4 everything that has smell is gMt.’ 

Again, the says that the definition has the 
fault of for there is smell in water and others 

and thus they also become gfofc Bnt the fogRft say5 
that it is not so. We admit the perception of in 
sra as being that of earth mixed up with 3 P 5 &c , by 
means of and ( Thus —Where one 

thing is, there another thing exists; 1. e. t Universal 
accompaniment of things that are related to each 
other, as ^ and w, as ^ 3 : ^ ^ sfaft arfcfa—* 
Universal accompaniment of absences; mutual ab^ 
sence. It is permutation , as m m 5 ni% ^ ^ ^ 

a#r. Here spq *:—m ^ ^ w. 1 

m sr* si i 1). For there 

is the relation between *13 and ; be¬ 
cause is with and gMt is the of 

Sfaffasi in it. . 

Now again is necessary for every thing. Thus all 


Digitized by ^.ooole 



(\ \) 


things exist in TO £nd so all the difinitions would be 
applicable to TO; consequently there will be the $W of 
wfSwnft on TO. But it is not so ; because we ( i. e, t 
the ) prefer this definition as it contains a 

or contact which is different from the STO which 
makes all things dependent on something ( e . g ., TO 
as here ). 

sfcRtfa is that whose non-existence we are speaking 
of and the others are TOffiwft ; as, TO is a of a 

foom where there are men ; while the men in the room 
are the TOftwifil of the same room* 

TO means the destruction of a thing that once 
existed. If the qz is not destroyed, it is the of 

the TOW of itself, i, e ., it does not answer to its TOW. ■ 
Thus ftww is that which does not answer to its 
and erfaww is that which answers to its own TO. 

-- :o:- 

totowwto& TOt aynrs 11 

and are the special qualities of water, 

of TORI. TORI=TOWt—that sort of impres¬ 
sion which is made upon the mind by a thing wheri 
seen, and by which the thing is remembered ) 

( t!3£cTrSf is defined as sw wwwN ft —That which 
has the power of making any thing perceptible. A 
more accurate description is 

TOWW —A thing becomes —perceptible of 

appreciable when it possesses any of these qualities 
which can be perceived. The fatWgjRs of tow are 
also perceptible^) 

An is commonly defined as a means bf 


Digitized by ^.ooole 



.which knowledge is obtained. But the definition given 
in the is more accurate: 

is that which is 
united with in order that there many be perception* 
and at the same time does not possess the perceptible 
; or developed special qualities with the exception of 
11 The nature of an organ is susceptibility of 
conjunction with the internal organ causative of know¬ 
ledge, accompanied with insusceptibility of the appre¬ 
ciable particular qualities other than sound.’* 

: The above definition may be accounted for in 

the following manner 

The theory of the/lfofa$s is that in order that the 
jsoul may obtain knowledge, it is united with 
in its turn with organ of sense, and 

With**^—the object whose knowledge is to be attained, 
and thus it is that perception issues ( ' 

usrar 33^ <t<t:5R«er ’), Thus *ft:- 

exists in etiRT and also in Rftpis, The theory is 
that everything is with to. Then TO also may 

be but it is not TOTO1. 

-»• - • 


Now if we define as ra dq t TOTOftfttTO q , this 
definition will extend to to and to tow, for, both are 
united with But the word JRTOI when added, 

serves to exclude to only, but not TO?r. TOU remains 
as it is a JRTO*. 

The fMta^s of smut are 3^ and the other five, 
&c., 1. e. t it is the «nro of f^rajors. So by adding 
Went is excluded from the defini¬ 
tion, because the fr$Rg«rs of tow are perceptible ( 3 fcr) 


as we feel the influences of pleasure and pain &q. 
But the other distinguishing qualities .ft, ^ ■*?$> ^ 


Digitized by kjooole 




and flNp belong to the.five gsqs-% 3 !^,. sfa$, «ng,' and 

afl^TCl respectively ; and the Indriyas are. the species 
of these five elements,, as is is sjpnfta 

&c. Thus the Indriyas have faw^s. For is the 
of the eye, ^ that of which is wimi. 

Bttt* the f^WTs of the Indriyas are not developed 
( or perceptible ) i. e» a?3^r. In the case of the 
** is perceptible, but in the case of the eye, the 
which is in the eye is not perceptible, and so on with 
the other three ( siw excluded ). But sfRHT is fattogoTPra 
while it is also proved to be and the sjfas s 

are so by adding this latter part we 

exclude eiwn as has been shown above. 

The definition at this stage is ^crf#*3®rRProef 

Now is the of errerer which is measured 

off by the cavity of the ear, and the distinguishing 
quality of the is perceptible, and thus is 

Therefore the above definition is not 
applicable to the and thus the latter is excluded. 

But as is one of the Indriyas , it must be includ¬ 
ed in the definition of is 

sfPTO and so also every is. Thus the definition 
becomes full and correct when it is stated as in the 
Dipika. 

'H, B . Additional.—If we have only *R:^fbr as 
the def. of would include such *r:$#ts as 

are not SFTOTCot, as when is united with or enters 
the at the time of sleep ; but for our purpose 

we want 9R^lwm:^his. 

If the Def. were R&ywwK rafr sfa &c., the 

together with the SRSs, would he excluded. 

3 


Digitized by 



( u ) 

In the Tarkakanmudi is defined as 

It is the theory of the ancient Indian philosophers 
that the soul is all-pervading. It exists in the body 
as well as everywhere outside. But there is this 
peculiarity that the feelings of pleasure or pain 
produce their effect on the soul only with reference to 
all space in the body. The soul outside the body and 
pervading, indifferent alike to those feelings. 

is the vessel by being connected with which, 
(or being coincident with or measured by which ) *$t*t 
or suffering is occasioned to the •mur. Our srfK is 
i. e. made up of earth. It is otherwise defined as 

irtrosq. It does not become the 
of anything else. 

is that which measures off or confines the 
soul and renders it capable of pleasure or pain, qfr is 
the experiencing or consciousness of pleasure or pain. 

In the Dipik& Ptw-mass-is defined as 
In the Tarkakaumudi it is defined as #rcrni- 

^—that which contributes to enjoyment or suffering 
while it itself is the faro of fR, i. e . capable of being 
known. The word 9 wn«Kf excludes and srtfc which 
contribute to afto but are not urrr. It is through the 
that the takes place but it itself is tRftftpr. 

The defines fam as hNr* 

The qualities common to most substances are:— 
tm, swr, form, to, usr, (urw ) 
Vt—velocity and feftwnwat—Faculty of elasticity. 

Organized earthly bodies are of five sorts; viz. 
swifts! (Ungenerated) (uterine) wx (oviparous )j 


Digitized by ^.ooole 



() 

(engendered in filth) and aft* ( vegetative or 
germinating ). 

N. JB. These physical facts are based upon a 
limited observation. There may be many exceptions 
according to modern theories; but here they are not 
to be taken into account. 

H. 

Water is that whose quality is coldness to the 
touch. 

Dlptka . 

The above definition is objected to on the ground 
that it has the fault of In the case of water 

destroyed the very next moment after its production, 
there is no as in that water no time was allowed 

for the development of the This objection may 

]>e answered: Water is It 

has a am% which exists in the same place with 
and which is directly included in i. e. which is 
the next less extensive to 

Again, an objection is raised: the definition has 
the fault of e tf ftw n ffr . A stone is cold to the touch and 
so it is 3 R*. This objection may be removed in as much 
as stone is cold to the touch because there is water. 
And therefore the definition is not faulty. 

N. B. The definition that 1 Water is cold to the 
touch ’ is not correct in the light of modern physics; 
coldness or heat depends upon the temperature which 
we can change at pleasure. 

XI. 

^df^is that which is hot to the touch. It compie- 
hends both light and heat ; ane they are considered 
to be the same. 

Consisting of the effects of TOigs. 

—In the world presided over by the sun. 


Digitized by ^.ooole 



( ) 


^wnro—Tbat which enables you to apprehend col&ur. 
^OTcnntT^cf—Existing on the point of the dark pupil 
of the eye. ■ r ' 

(i)*hr —The which we see where wood burns* 

It is existing in the earth. It is qrnfauHfaiu *, e. feeding 
itself only upon urfifa substances, (ii) —It exists 

in the upper regions. It feeds itself upon water. (iii) 
(Alvine). It is the cause of digestion of what¬ 
ever has been eaten or drunk. It is wpfi u e . it. feeds 
itself upon water as well as upon substances. 
(Moderm observations are opposed to this view. They 
say that digestion causes heat, and food is wanted to 
keep up the bodily heat; i. e. Heat is j 

while the t^tifos hold that Heat is gwfanutj.) (iv) 
—(Mineral or produced in mines)—It is eispre- 
ssR—feeding itself neither upon water nor upon qiffa 
substances, 

Dipikd 

The perception that there is hot water is conse¬ 
quent upon the existence of in common water. 
Thus the definition of is not on hot water. 

The *ftufcra>s affirm that gold is a substance. It is 
this view that is combated here below. 

If you say that is a ^ (earthy substance ) 
as it has, like turmeric, yellowness and weight, it 
will not do. For ^ is and when it is exposed 
to a great amount of heat, the liquidity of that is 
destroyed. But if you want to prevent the liquidity 
of the from being destroyed, you put it in ^ (and 
then the liquidity is not destroyed). Thus, when. 
which is a substance, is exposed to heat, the. 
liquidity is not destroyed,—excessive exposure to 
heat is the cause and the destruction of the Hqtii- 


Digitized by ^.ooQle 



() 

dity of the Substance is the effect, to* acts as the 
preventor of the desruction of the liqudity. So then 
there is the relation of cause and effect only when 
there is nothing to prevent the liquidity of a qiffa 
substance from being destroyed. —Accurate 

determination; ascertainment). gqtf, though exposed 
to excessive heat, has not its liquidity destroyed ( u e. 
its is ). Thus is the of the' 

liquidity which is not destroyed even though there is. 
excessive exposure to heat. 

So from the above argument it is seen that gold 
is a like se. The is not destroyed in the 

case of gold; therefore there must be some other 
liquid substance in that gold to prevent the 

liquidity of the from being destroyed as 

water in the case of the ssr. If you say it is we say it 
is not, for has a ( natural liquidity ) and 

not a ( accidental ) one. But the liquidity in 
gold is not natural but accidental—being produced 
by contact with heat. Thus the in this 

case is not to*. 

If we say it is &c. in gold which prevents the 
that qrg &c. has not which gold has; thus 
&c., is rejected. 

But^ro^has always hot touch and a shining white 
colour. Now there is Sfipfr or rather qififa 3 RT in gold 
whice has a cold touch and yellow colour which puts 
down or overpowers tjhe hot touch and shining white 
colour and consequently we do not perceive the hot 
touch and shining white colour. ( —No 

perception ). 

Thus it is proved that gold is made up of light. 

XII, 

Being devoied of ^ is that which has 


Digitized by ^.oooie 



(w) 

It is the cause of touch. We feel its and not 
the wig itself. 

Some which possess qigvfc are vnft? and others. 
Difrika • 

The word obviates the on TOBFflfor 

which also are devoid of to. The expression TOd^T 
obviates the ufawilft on &c., which have got 
Thus the definition means: qff is that which has 
which alone we perceive, and which has no * 3 . 


XIII. 

That which is called sift is a *13 which moves in 
the body. It is one but receives five names in conse¬ 
quence of certain attending circumstances ( or envi¬ 
ronments ). These TOifts are two : (:) TOifa of position 
in which it plays and ( 2 ) TOifa of function: ( 
and Mtqrfa). 

(i) srot s*TRt pftdflTO: i 

TOR: TO g fog ft«* r: n 

(ii) sift: i 1 3^r- 

ufororc PS^RrogpRR^ ( v /. totor[ ) tor: I TOft- 
^#FRT5^R: 15TT*tg% ( veins and arteries ) falTOFTR: I 

According to Vl«:— 

TOft m mm: %k TOfaS* i 

5 T ^ Rift TOTO: | 

PR is the Wl^J. 

( Modern view is quite opposed to this. It states 
that here is a nervous power which effects all these 
changes which the five sifts perform according to their 
respective functions; and that the human bowels have 
a vermicular motion and on account of this motion it 
is that the TO is taken down ). 


Digitized by ^.ooole 



< n) 

If the 4T$ known by different names as sifts &c. 
Were not one and uniform, bat five different egs as 
sift, artH &c., each pervading the whole body, then, 
says the author, as each of these will be a they 

all cannot without conflicting with one another 
occupy the same place, viz. the body, 

“ Its existence as a distinct substance is inferred 
from feeling. The wind that blows is apprehended as 
temperate independently of the influence of light and 
this temperature which is a quality implies a substra¬ 
tum, for it cannot exist whithout one. That substra¬ 
tum is air, different from water, which is cold, from 
light which is hot, and from earth which is adven¬ 
titiously warm by induction of light.” ( Col. Ess.) 

The Naiyayikas hold that this world does not 
exist independently of * God created the world 
out of nothing’ is the doctrine of the religions of the 
West; and also the prevailing common doctrine of 
the Hindus is the same. However, on the contrary, 
the six Schools of Philosophy do not hold this doc¬ 
trine. They say; nothing can be created out of nothing, 
as there can be no without a qroi* holds the 
theory of atoms and says that we have got the world 
put of the 'Kffl'Ss. If he had said that TOngs develo¬ 
ping themselves in a variety of forms have assumed 
the state of thi* world, he would have been an 
atheist as there are some at present. It is the materi¬ 
alists that say that the world is of itself the outcome 
of the atoms and that there is no God. admits 

the existence of God who has put the qwigs in a pecu¬ 
liar shape and this shows that He has some will and 
design. Educing order out of the chaos of the <rci?njs 
is the function of God. The two things viz . the <F*ngs 
and God are held asco-eval by the Naiyayikas. Some 


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< ** ) 

.Vedantins however say that God has developed him¬ 
self in the form of this world. According to the 
philosophy, this world is a development of 


Dipikd. 

The process of creation and dissolution of 
fra and fig in the form of their products is as 
follows: By the will of God motion is generated in the 
atoms which are eternal things with * no parts and no 
magnitude ’. Then two atoms unite to form a binary 
atom (). Three such binaries when combined 
give rise to a tertiary atom. Four traids form a qua¬ 
ternary atom. Thus gradually are evolved the gross 
gW &c. When God desires to bring about a dissolu¬ 
tion of the Universe, then there is motion in the 
atoms ; diads are destroyed when the two combined 
atoms sever from each other. The destruction of triads 
is consequent upon the destruction of diads—the 
material cause of triads. Thus comes about the disso¬ 
lution of earth and others. The material cause of 
the diads, namely wnsjs is eternal; so uyjww is caused 
by the frawifiraw—fWiSKftrapwrai. 

It is a traditional belief held by the old school 
that the is caused by the smirSwr; whilst the 

later Naiyayikas hold that everywhere the destruc¬ 
tion is due to the ww i ftww w. 

N. B. When matter in the course of formation 
arrivse at the bulk of a triad, it assums figure and 
becomes visible. 

ft <pr: fwig &c. (ra ffi TO—Existence.) 

What is about the belief in the existence of q^figs? 
Each of the various particles of dust seen in ray of 
the sun coming through a window must be composed 
of parts jurt as qa &c. are ; so the sfsjfafff is 
also Slfff, because it produces TRgfftuw i. e . a fforw 
greater thah itself, ^ produces a qfopr viz. qrafairo 


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and just as that epj has got «W33s, so also the 53$j3» 
which is composed of sigts has ai333s. Then «ig«R too 
is $1333. So, if that n«pB can be divided into parts, why 
should we stop at that and say that the wowys are indi" 
visible ? If we divide a <K3f*3, then and (mustard) 
will be argued to be of the same size because both 
can be divided ad infinitum and so there would be 
no difference between them in size. 

• . i 

The gfr passage “Brahma again.created the sun 
and moon as before “ is an authoritative testimony for 
the existence and dissolution of the creation. a?3Pflt- 
333 otherwise called 3T>35i33 is that in which all $r^«3s- 
substances in the form of products-are annihilated and 
3*15133 takes place when all $T3$r$s and not sn$33^s (as 
a broken 32) are destroyed. A *3%$<i3H$ as a broken 
32 cannot be destroyed again at the time of 333. Cf. 
*' 31*1 3 33t 3 $PFihft$3t 3F33.1 " 

XIV. 

\ 

Cf. “ The existence of an ethereal element as a 
distinct substance is deduced not from distinct percep¬ 
tion, but from inference. Sound is a peculiar quality, 
for, like colour and other peculiar qualities it is appre¬ 
hended by only one external organ of such beings as 
men are ; now a quality abides in a substratum which 
is qualified, but neither soul, nor any one of the four 
elements—earth, water, light and air,—can be its subs¬ 
tratum, for it is apprehended by the organ of hearing. 
The qualities of earth and the rest are not apprehen¬ 
ded by bearing but sound is ,* therefore it is not a qua¬ 
lity of these substances, nor is it a quality of time, 
Space and mind; since it is a peculiar quality and 
those three substances have none but such as are com¬ 
mon to many. Therefore a substratum other than all 

4 


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(<() 

these is inferred and that one is the ethereal element. 
It is one, for there is no evidence for diversity and its 
unity is congruous as infinity accounts for ubiquity. 
It is infinite because it is found everywhere. It is 
eternal because it is infinite.” (Col. Ess.) 

fagm is that which is union with (*. e. covers) all 
gjfcais. A is that which has a definite size (or 
limited dimension ) and which can be moved from one 
place to another. 

N. B. According to the modern theories of 
Light and Sound, m** is rather a ga of mj than of ether. 

XVI, 

Relative space. 

The relations between existing bodies are accoun* 
.ted for by f^. It has not the capacity for containing 
bodies; but it has that of pointing out the relations 
between existing bodies with reference to a 
certain body. 

XVII. 

enwT is the substratum of the 3 * called am. The 
individual soul is different for each There are 

several doctrines, as regards eiEar, of different Vedan- 
tins: one bymmmar# (788 A. D.), a second by marga 
(middle of the i2th century A. D.), a third by am 
(1118 A. D. birth) and a fourth by mm. S'ankaril* 
charya’s system is known as the ; that of tiaig* as 
that of am as|a and that of mm as smta. 

maintained that there is one supreme 
soul in the universe. Individual soul does not exist, 
The whole world is merely an illusion and Ignorance 


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Google 



() 

(TOt) is its origin. TO only exists and it 4s the supreme 
soul. We make a of the world on to through ur«n 
as of on * 33 . to is the site* or * 33 , and the world 
around is the or (With this a question 

naturally arises: if the things we make a TO of on 
TO did not exist, how is it possible for us to make a 
TO of those hings on TO ? How can to err ? How can 
we imagine a certain thing to be like a particular 
thing unless there already existed that thing?) 

The followers of owgsi maintain that there is only 
one God and it is only He that exists and nothing 
else. They regard His body and soul as quite dis¬ 
tinct and are the three TO$s in the whole 

universe. and are the body of god because 

He controls them as one does one’s own body. This 
doctrine is inasmuch as there is only one God and 
it is partly $3 inasmuch as and TO are distinct re¬ 
alities. Thus WN 331 vindicates the reality of the world 
and separate existence of the human or animal spirit; 
and these latter two are the attributes of the supreme 
spirit. 

The followers of TO maintain that the whole 
world is real and that the individual soul and the 
supreme soul are distinct. The individual soul is 
.divided into and TO. This is the Srto. Again there 
is the five eternal distinctions: difference 

between fcrc and sfa, fcrc and TO, and to, and Hn, 
and to and to. 

A 7 ". B .—The Naiyayikas are tro#s, like the 
followers of to. 

The followers of maintain that God him¬ 

self assumes different forms of ifas and tos. In his 
system the animal spirits and the inanimate world are 
but forms of the supreme spirit and are related to 
Him as jthe sparks of fire to the fire. - ■ 


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( K ) 

The define b?irt as because they 

regard every thing else as a production or development 
of UFir i. e. Ignorance, except which itself is $R. 

and to—A ll agree in saying that, 
all their doctrines as Vedantins are derived from one 
and the same stock viz., the Upanishads which form 
the last part of the Vedas. 

The ifRfeRs hold that qmtJWw gw$:, TO- 

sj xmn &c. The say: just 

as the king gives rewards for services done, so 
gives the fruit of the ceremonies performed. 

Dipikd. 

—Exertion, effort, ftif—Characteristic (as, 
smoke is of fire). The material cause. BttTOT— 

The Scriptural Texts, fa is the substratum of eternal 
knowledge. 

N. B. The Sdnkhyas object to the existence of 
God. They admit only three srros viz . bt^to and 

BIUR. They are the objectors, here, consequently. 

(The 5t5t^r is br or bjwrtc according as the sfa* 
with which an object is ^fr is w, bsj: &c.; or 
only, which is regarded as an by them). 

(The Theory of the Naiyayikas is that jrts are 
apprehended by the eyes and gqs by the other ^rs ). 

If you do not see he is not a to because for 
the external perception of a TO colour is required; 
but fa has no colour. (AnaRffiro is not Bgifa). 
Therefore ^ is BRfa i. e. not a to and therefore he is 
not an object of Biirf^BSRR. 

(TO$r knowledge as these philosophers say, is only 
of sis, and and none of and birr. Really 


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< H) 

speaking properties alone we perceive, be that colour, 
sound or touch, and not the things to which those pro¬ 
perties belong, at all. Because as in the case of errawr 
and ^3 we only perceive their properties, so it cannot 
but be supposed—-the circumstances being similar— 
that in the other cases you perceive the property 
namely colour, for things-Sfafy 99 and —as divest¬ 
ed of their colour and form it is impossible to appre¬ 
hend. Therefore properly speaking you should say 
that all things are perceptible ; but if a thing does 
not possess the property colour, it is not perceived. 
Thus srewgr knowledge they confine to alone .) 

Not even aRftftRTOWj proves the existence of GodJ 
By the you have the perception of 5 :^: &c. 
and is different from the pains and pleasures in the 
mind, TO^is and as it is only when is 

joined with if^that it has the knowledge of 3 :^; 

W is not then apprehended by the aFflftfiwsRwy ( Be¬ 
cause snapaMJH has reference only to what is passing 
in one’s own mind. Or, by the internal perception 
we have only the perception of the gun as of amur; 

and as is not a fwr guna of He cannot be 
perceived by the sRftftR ). 

Not even there is any for there is no ffcu (a 
characteristic to warrant an inference ); nor is there 
any proof in the vedas for the existence of God ( nor 
is there any revelation because you cannot have one). 
Therefore there is no God. This is what the says. 

The rejoins: “ No, it will not do; for the 
growing of a shoot out of the earth, being a is 
given rise to by a certain doer, as is TO, which is a 
q>Ht, brought into existence by the potter. Thus then 
there must be some auther who produces the pheno¬ 
mena such as the growing of a shoot and it will be 


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( V ) 

shown that the author must be God.' And the abovo 
fact follows from the analogy on which the forego-* 
ing proof is based,” 

Cf. 3991 9& % to UK 

farof to 999 39 u 

Now what are the essentials of a God or author ? 

3<iRrc is the matter or material of which a thing 
is made. Thus the earth is the 39T3I9 of 92 As the 
earth is the 391319 of 92, so the 3$3 that is produced in 
the other case must have something, according to 
these philosophers, viz, atoms or 9 < 9 l 3 s as its material 
cause. 

In order that there must be a there must be 
-knowledge of the material to be used to creat the 
'thing intended. Next there must be a desire and the 
third essential is the effort which is mental action. 

{ Further explanation is :—If $93 has made the 
•1J9, what material did he use far the formation or 
conduction of atoms ? When the 9^9 of God is liken¬ 
ed to that of a potter, then as one cannot do any¬ 
thing out of nothing, so it must also be allowed that 
God, too, did not create all things out of nothing. If 
he has 3^c3, it includes three things or elements viz., 
direct knowledge , desire, and will (the power of 
bringing the will into force. ) 

$93 sees the infinitesimal atoms and therefore he 
is omniscient- There is also a 99T9 in the Vedas viz>, 

4 9: 9$sr: 9 9$fa^9?&9 s%f*9 3K9! 9%- 

to: U.’ Since God had to bring together and arrange 
the 93913 s, He must be able to see them which it is 
impossible for ordinary men to do. This is arrived 
at through * 13919 ; also we have the evidence of the 
Revelation. 


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( M ) 

plWirt &c. The objector says that 

«nwT is ^rtrc, itself, for whenever we say * I am a man/ 
r I am a ip,’ and so on, the expression et^is used 
everywhere with reference to the sitrc and therefore 
W(k is the 9TTWT. 

The says: “ no ; the srtK cannot be en?nr; 

for if it be then—when the hands, feet and other 

parts of the body are destroyed, the sitft is also destro¬ 
yed ;—the must be destroyed. But ancnr is 

Thus it is not srCK. (Cf. ^5 * su firerce : n 

5 —the changes after every seven years and thus 

a man must not know a thing in old age which he 
saw in his childhood, the »IICTT being changed with 
the ). 

Another argument is that are the attfur for 

they perform the functions. But then there would be 
as many anwrs as there are ^s*s. Now if the enc*ns 
are many and diflrent from each other, it will not be 
possible to say ^ Wf ^n^T. First I had 

me knowledge of the m by means of the and 

now have the knowledge of the same uz by means of 
the <<fPlfc4i. The knowledge that I touch the same uz 
which I saw is impossible since the an«UTs which are 
are different in the two *ftRs. ( STgSRR-con- 
tiecting one thing with another suitably.) 

One man cannot be connected with a thing 
which is apprehended by another. Therefore affa is 
different from and The ancHi is different in 

every body through' the difference of 59 and 5 :^ 
when men enjoy and suffer. - 

The is not wnsjs* ; for if it were an atom, it 
would not be able to percieve the gs, 5 :^ &c. spread¬ 
ing through the whole body. But actually speaking 
We have the knowledge of the Sir, 5 :* &c. ( 
apprehension.) 


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( XX ) 

Thus trout is not TOtig. Neither is it of a ipronfotro 
(limited dimension ). 

It is a rule that things having some definite shape 
must be destroyed somehow or other. Supposing 
the soul to be of definite size and consequently des¬ 
troyed, a man will die without having any more to suffer 
for his misdeeds and being rewarded for his virtuous 
deeds. If a soul is created for the first time in a man 
and if the man is miserable throughout his life, we 
cannot account for this. His misery will be the result 
of a thing which he never did ( ) for he had 

no previous existence. If the eroro is of it 

will be destroyed and consequenty there will be TOf 
of i. e. there will be no result of a thing done, be 
it virtuous or a bad one ; also there will be of 

In short, the soul is infinite because happiness 
and misery are the effects of acts done in the past life. 
Therefore «roro is fat* and fag. Thus belief in a former 
as well as in a future life is warranted. 

XVIII. 

( -V. B. English philosophers refer all the intel¬ 
lectual faculties to the mind. Reasoning, imagination, 
and ways of arriving at knowledge and remembering 
are also referred to the mind. Sometimes emotional 
phenomena are referred to the mind in its extended 
sense ). 

is that organ or faculty by which we get con¬ 
scious ness of happiness, misery&c. It is infinitely small 
and indestructible. The word ffaro is added to exclude 
which is also the snro of^rfi^rofa?. iro^is 
defined by the Natyaytkas as the faculty of consci¬ 
ousness. Other philosophers defineiR^ras that which re¬ 
flects over a variety of things. When the ^ttributefawwqis 


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( u ) 

applied to *rs, attention is also included in the idea 
of 

Dipikd :— 

The definition of *R^ is g r fcfaafaqfa faRR^ *R:, — 

is an Indriya which has faRr and which has no to¬ 
uch. If we simply said faRRRjR:, the Definition would 
extend to an^, and ^rg which also have tor. 

Thus by adding flfa all these 3Rs are excluded; 

a?T$rcr, are also 5Rs having no but they 

have no faRT. 

As each anRt has a separate iR^for it, it follows 
that minds are many as souls are many. 

The qfaro that a thing must possess in order that 
it should be indestructible is either infinitely small or 
infinitely large. If mind is of a limited dimension, 
then it is perishable ; and if mind is destroyed; then 
the soul becomes incapable of experiencing happiness 
or misery. ( But in order that the soul should be capa¬ 
ble of experiencing these *R^r must be eternal. Being 
eternal it must be either TO3 or flfcWTI3 ). 

To say that just as an^rer is fag and so also 

being a must be fag—it will not do. 

Because if it be fag, there will be no perception, for 
there will be no existence of the auwMCTfri (which is 
requisite for perception) which is the aratNiftnKui of 
|lR-( there is gngfarct: Wfm relation between hr and 
anRi; also there is. (g°rgf&Rl: rrr relation between. 
anRiRSRfa and antur; and the ar$r is anRi; iir, according 
to the Ndyayikas , is the same as These two 

words are WRTRs merely.). iRg is not fag; if it is were , 
so, there would be no afRjR:33R, both anRT and *R^r 
being fag. It will not do to think that two fag things .. 
are capable of union . For if there is a WiFi between : 
two such things, that *RR must exist at all times, ; 
since both of diem are fag; and the result of such a . 

5 


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( \t ) 

union in the present case will be that there will be no 
sound sleep, as the union will be eternal. (Qlfe=Sleep 
in which there is no perception at all). But we have 
a sound sleep, and therefore there is no such union. 
But as *r$R is necessary therefore *rt^ must be «THJ. 
Still »rg*R^ and ariRT must be always united; and 
since strut is fag tnere will be no sound sleep and this 
is contrary to our experience. hr is to be had when 
»TR*TT and JR^r are united in a place other than the 
gfafa vein. 

ggftr is thus accounted for: When the argiRff ent¬ 
ers the gftflfcT and there becomes united with the 9TRRT 
which is all'pervading, (therejs no s^R between *R^ 
and STRRT in places other than the gfafa incapable of 
giving rise to perception ), the faculty of the «ttr*r: • 
q*lR for produciug knowledge ceases there. Hence 
there is no knowledge and consequently, there is 
sound sleep. 

Thus the fact that tr^ is «I3 is proved. 

XIX. 

fq as defined in the text is jpi:—(RWfa 

means ^IfrqjSRRrfqqqRq—being the object of direct 
perception by means of external senses)—The word 
*TR is used, for otherwise the definition would extend 
to *nRT, &c. which are both qapiw and rwttu. The 
word JR excludes wtr which is apprehended by^ the 
eye alone according to the rule Tzwh 

m iflgRlffrK R R q siRqq R q Now it may be objected 
that this definition would include SRlfafroRlu which is 
a gq and is besides qajifaim To remove this sffoRTfa 


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( ^ ) 


the definition is modified into 

This modified definition excludes swiftfawihi bepause 
this fjpfr? has as its (and not swift ft*wWl-a 
ftfog s nfo ) which is as well as Rprnw. (Cf. if 

I q^TOT- 

fRS^TO. i sft.—Here ‘asjjfanrawift^ is accurately expla¬ 
ined by 3 °rf^roft is that *A 

which divides 3 "i into parts; that is, a which is su¬ 
bordinate to, or less extensive than, 3 *i?q; for example 
TOc*, *q$icq &c.—the snfts of the twenty-four gprs. Thus 
it is clear that a which is and besides 3 * 1 - 

Rww^ is fq?q only.) This definition does not exclude 
which, though has still a snft which is 

apprehended by the eye alone. 

« 

If the definition be only fqi*— 

not being understood in the sense of 3 "ift*rwWi—it 
will include 5WT or which are *«is having a snfa 
which is q*gifr?ww. This eifawjiftr is removed by putt¬ 
ing in the word 301 . 

N. B. The definition of *q as given in the text is 
more easily explained by taking the word 301 to mean 
fatra3®i, Thus swiftrcwwin will be excluded in as much 
as it is not a ; also sreir, &&& &c. which are 
not ft$iq 3 <ns are excluded. Now it may be objected that 
after this reasoning there is no propriety of the word 
W%. But it is.necessary to exclude slftf^qw which 
is a (of m ) but is not ^pimsnsi. Cf. ‘arajft swr- 

w <raifa i'(q.f.) 


Dipikd :— 

( 8 T«n«nft« is defined as q ^^^ i s^M^^i rrift^i^- 
a thing is said to be efsqjqnftf when it exists along with 


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( u ) 

its own enura in a certain other thing. Now what is 
meant by ? It is that combination or blending 
together of some of the seven colours which exist in 
part in a thing, i. e. f which exist together with their 
8RR in a thing. What is the necessity of regarding 
fa^fq as a separate colour ?) 

The says that there is no fa^q. Then the 
.asks him what the *q of a certain to is. The ans¬ 
wers that the sq is qq diver¬ 

sified or variegated colour is nothing but a combinat¬ 
ion of iffa and other colours which exist only in a 
part of the to **. e, which occupy each of them only a 
part of the to and this is the *q of the to. In short, the 
says: “ Why do you regard Rf^q as an in¬ 
dependent colour ? Speak of to as being made up of 
parts of different colours. ” 

The says in return : “No, this will not do. 

Because in order that a thing may be seen the 57 ? 
of the thing must occupy the whole of that thing. As 
you see the to as a whole, you must have that one 
fq of the to all occupying it thoroughly. ” 

the says :—“ What reason have you to say 
that the to has ^q as a whole? As the several colours 
belong to the sevaral parts, the ^q there is only in each 
of the parts; but the whole has no colour for it is 
neither wholly blue nor wholly white &c. We see on 
the f^rro the *q of its sraqqs. ” 

The says:-“ No, this will not do. Because 
then the to will not be seen unless it has ^q as a whole. 
But you actually see the to, and you have the sanction 
of ordinary usage that if a to is of many colours, you, 
yrith reference to such a TO say that it is of a variega- 


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■(V*) 

ted colour and not that the whole has no colour but 
a part is blue and a part red. If you say that the colour 
of the TO as a whole you cannot apprehend, but only 
of its parts, then you must acknowledge ‘ that yon do 
not see the to.’ But we see the to. And therefore it 
must have some colour.” 

Again the says: “ It is not necessary that a 
thing should have to so that there may be direct per¬ 
ception, but it is enough if that thing is in tortc rela¬ 
tion with its parts, which have a to, to make it be 
seen as a whole.” 

Tee answers : “ But that the TO is directly 

perceptible is not to be explained unless you admit 
f^TO as the colour of the to.” 

-Complexity of conception; round-abont way. 


XXII. 

TOir—Tangibility, trocar—Neither hot nor cold. 
Dipikd . 

The word obviates the on srof 

&c., which are as also 


XXIII. 

—Produced by the application of heat. 

TO, TO, & *q^r are produced in by means 
of qpR and these TO &c. are aifoq in the case of and 
not both fas? and ajfas?. Why e?fa<si in the case of 
and not both fas? and a?fas? as in the other cases?—Be¬ 
cause they are produced by the application of heat in the 
qronjTO and $TOTO of sfasfr, and what is produced is ajfas?. 
For example, the change in the colour, taste, &c. in a 
mango cannot take place without a change being pro¬ 
duced in the qroi^s. Thus affaro refers to qrorgro and 
<Ei5TO . Therefore even in the case of qroisjs to, &c. are 


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(v) 


in the case of only. What is possible to the 
elements is foot or stftst according as the elements are 
fjfa or etftst, or 

FT, TO, &c. in F*ts other than gfarfr viz, and 

«tig are not produced by the application of heat and 
they are ftF or etft^T. The ^ of water is etfaF in the 
case of «Nis such as rivers &c. In the case of 
and 3tg these jpis are not and they are erfW in 
%Nis and in rtoisjs. 

Dipikti. 

By the application of heat the original colour is 
destroyed and a new colour is produced. Here the qre 
takes place in the Rrorgs and not in the snjpte. When a 
raw (etrc) TO is placed in fire, the change of colour 
takes place in the <TTOH3s; then the 3 *ptto is destroyed 
and a red to is produced in the order of aflj^s which 
go to form *ig$s and so on. 

The theory is that two atoms combine to form a 
ai5j$; three U3$s combine to form a 5 ^ 3 ^; four 
form a =^ 333 $ and so on, until we come to the Ftia. 

The theory of Vaise’shikas: When a to is put 
into a furnace, it is resolved into firss ; these wv&s 
again into small portions as ^ 333 $, 533 $, and ulti¬ 
mately these into <?TO13S. Thus the to is resolved into 
qTOlHJs. Then in the state of qronss, the atoms change 
their Ft, TO, and ^ by means of heat. ( This be¬ 
ing an such as Destiny, 53T, laws 

of nature &c.). Having got these four gunas cheuged 
in them, the qroH3s combine to form «!3*s 3*iig$s, &c, 
up to Fticss formed in the new form. These two Flias 
combining together further by <tre>, go to form the 
present to which has got its original 3T9FI changed 
into a tot one. 


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<vO 

The Theory of the Naiydyikas 

The change in the gunas does not take place by 
the process above mentioned; but the change of 
colour in the takes place simultaneously with the 
apR# ( tc) and the (<rongs) without the destruc¬ 
tion of the original tc. The jpirk of aaz which is 
thrown into a furnace takes place by the qre which 
is at once produced in the aR^rcs, ( even into the atoms 
themselves) and the without the destruction of 
the original TC. From this it follows that the fqri§ of 
qiffqqvugs is changeable. In other srs ( ) this 

sqifcqgM is not produced by qffi. These are unchange¬ 
able with reference to the qwigs and changeable with 
reference to the 

-:o:- 

Difikd —The four gunas beginning with *q are 
perceptible when developed. They are not visible 
when undeveloped. These four gunas may be deve¬ 
loped or undeveloped. In the eye which is 
as the which ought to be is not perceptible, 

it is assumed to be Developed ^q &c., are 

found in combination of atoms which produce sfStfr 
&c., and are capable of being seen directly. 


XXIV* 

is the peculiar cause that renders possible 
our use of such expressions as (unity ) &c. 

Cf, mm <wt i 

irt ^ ftp % in II 

Pi qrer: q*re *m: i 

mi q*i$* PtFfw qwn ii x ii 
The of the for things is imperishable; 
and others though existing in faR things are perish¬ 
able, as also when existing in things, ft(R is 


Digitized by ^.ooQle 



always afasr because it is produced by afa3Tgfc[ [ ... the 
gfe of comparison; the viewiug of one thing in refere¬ 
nce to another thing. Cf. W^J^fe-The distinguishing 
perception by which we apprehend * this is one/ &c., 
and which gives rise to the notion of It is de¬ 
fined as It is also defined as fcnwfrntl- 

—‘ that operation of the mind which is 
the counter-entity to that emergent nonexistence 
( i. e ., destruction ) which itself causes a subsequent 
destruction (i e, trom the destruction of artajl ffe 
follows the destruction of f|3). ST. sr. ] 

We have two, three <$fc. when we think of com¬ 
paring that thing with others. But when it is viewed 
singly there is no two } three &c . The notion of 
number is deduced from comparision. There will be 
no one if there were no two, three &c. So one also 
requires ; but it is not so viewed by the 

and it is his mistake. He says that a thing not 
being compared with others because there is only 
one sort it has no and consequently it is not 

always 3?fo3, but fem fast and ofamm 

Properly speaking too is site which the 
does not notice, calling it fast. Their ob¬ 
servation of things was rather limited and superficial. 
In the sense of one too is called arfasi for if 

there were only one in the universe and the other 
things of that kind are not present in your mind, you 
cannot call it one . One you will have with reference 
to another which it makes two. In this sense is 
also 


XXV. 

f qftjTtGf—-is the special cause by which We speak 
of measure or size/ There are four divisions of 
*33, and There are again 


Digitized by ^.ooole 



( *\ ) 


two divisions of each of these : TOT and TT»TO. Wng= 
Infinitely small; and *rawr<3=Ordinarily small. 

and TOJTfSJ (itself) are examples of TOT<g and 

In the same way, TO, to, &c. „ „ „ *r*ron3 and 

„ „ „ qrrwi^and 

In the text, b?sj &c. are to be understood in their 
abstract sense, as etgc* &c. 

What is the propriety of the word arcrnw in this 
definition ? to**, &c. are the araww«TC*rs 

of all. Nothing can exist without these. Everything 
must be produced by God and must exist in time and 
space. If the word araiwr were omitted, there would 
be an stfoanffr on &c. 

XXVI. 

—Separateness. It exists in fa^E^s as well 
as in ( Individuality ) exists in fa^E^s 

(and TOJngs ). ftfcre is one which accounts for the ^ 
between one thing and another. The ^ between 
TOEI3S was accounted for by supposing them to have 
in them. ^ ( Distinct nature) is the numerical 
difference. ^ in TO*fe«*is is accounted for by the 
of their erases and the ^ of their gffrs by the of 
their atoms. (* g w.) 

—goes to the numerical difference of things 
while Sr goes to the (nature) of things, to: q$r 
shows the Sr between TO and TO ( and ifc must 
have for its account fa$R in things themselves or in 
their QRTOs or in their ultimate atoms.) 

6 


Digitized by ^.ooole 



( n ) 

TO: TOf^ sm? shows the sroeq, *. t . this is one thing 
and that is another. Each of the qTO3s of earth have 
get 4 tofi * gwraft' involves the distinct 

individuality of to and to. 

XXVII. 

is that quality in things by which we speak 
of the quality sgroq and think of it. It exists in alibis. 

qpihr=produced by means of motion. ^njTn3l=pro- 
duced from another 

This is atsancatffa, *. e. it is a s&ro of one thing 
which exists in one part of a thing together with its 
own awra. 

gome divide into two classes: viz., (i ) 

wfc—as for example ‘A bird perching on a 
tree or alighting on a mountain: or 

s%r. In this case one factor of the &it*T cannot move 
as in the example of (ii) as 

two goats butting against each other (Smt: ). In this 
case the two factors can move and form as in the 
particular example of two goats. 

i 




• XXVIII. 

ftont is that which causes the destruction of 

; XXIX. 

’ enters gfafa and other places as it has fasiT | 

So with reference to from gfeifcT it is am; and 
^ith reference to remote places in the body, 1 it is TO. 


Digitized by ^.ooQle 



( n ) 

xxx. 

A thing’s beginning to fall is distinguished from 
its continuing falling. How sirhcr has for its 

There is the TOTC relation between 3^ 

and a stone. Also there is fanfciraat: mm relation 
between (a stone’s)sn*pRR and the stone. Thus 3^ 
is the formal cause of beginning to fall. 

Dipikd. 

The word arm obviates the sifcWift on which is 
the aiTOlfawi of fteffcrreR, and which is a 3*1 as it is 
one of the tors. 


XXXI. 

Beginning to trickle. 

cidental. 


XXXII. 

—Adhesiveness is that 301 which is the cause 
of the powder forming itself into a ball. 

Cf. in: 1 

XXXIII. 

Articulate. ’TOTO-—Inarticulate. 

EftTHref —is produced from the separation of the 
two parts of a Bamboo when it is torn. 

—is produced by the waves of sound as 
ripples caused by something dropped down in water. 
These si^sr sounds are produced from the original sk 
according to the or 41 ^ITO-siris. 

(i) One bud of r has ten others round about it; 
just as the one blooms and the other ten simul¬ 
taneously bloom, so when one sound is generated; 
it gives rise to ten sounds in each of the ten 
directions and each of them produces ten sounds 
again and so on. 


Digitized by ^.ooole 



( »■» ) 

(ii) In the ocean when one wave is produced, it 
gives rise to others by propelling them. This 
process goes on till the first and all others suc¬ 
cessively reach the shore and there subside. So 
one sound propels another in the either till the 
first and all others successively reach the cavity 
of the ear. 

ft. 


XXXIV. 

14 Knowledge which is the the cause of all deal¬ 
ings is | 8 [.” In this definition some words are re¬ 
dundant, viz. INt 5335^3:; the latter expression is mere¬ 
ly a description. 

gra is usually given as an equivalent for gfe. It is 
not wanted in the «$n»r of Therefore either 44 gF* 
gfe: ” or “ is the correct definition. 

In the definition 44 gpt ** the word is to be 
understood in the sense of —that 

consciousness which we have of the fact that ‘1 
know’; gR which consists in your consciousness that 
you know. 

—Not only the operation of looking 

but also knowing that it is a (or that we know 

it); reflection. 

cannot be translated by experience , because 
includes and others. 

$jjfiN=Recalled or reproduced cognition; re- 
membrance. 

glQOT— Direct cognition ; original, immediate or 
primitive knowledge. It means the first knowledge 
which we have from the causes of kn owledge. 


Digitized b f ^.ooQle 



( *\ ) 

^KTCsssThe mental impression that is first form¬ 
ed on seeing a thing (and when that impression is 
recalled by any cause, you have TOR is of three 

kinds, viz. Vi, *Tf33T, and Inthe definition of 

the tor means *fl<WR3TOR. 

If the definition of were * $R *, then 
there would be an srfcMrffr on 8 T 333 or a^r,for instance, 
Our seeing any 33 is a $R; so to avoid the 
on 3<ilfa5K*UJir, we add TOR3F3, for the direct pre- 
ception or 3*3$ of a 33 is not TOR3T?3. The word 313 
removes the aifawmft on asiftsr. For, for sreifa$r you 
must have the thing itself before you ; and also there 
must be the revival of the old $^R produced when 
the thing was seen before. Of course, sisifasr you have 
when you see a part of the thing and at the same time 
you remember the impression connected with it. 
Therefore sretflffli is both (ngwro (or tftqgftq&Ri) 
and tor*F 3. The word hr removes the on 

TOR^fa In the expression TOR3I3*F3, si? 3 means 
3cW?R Now everything is the 3>R3 of its own 
which thus becomes a Thus tor^ is 
*R 5 R?F 3 and is therefore included in the definition. 
But it is not HTOR3, t, e. it does not produce 
knowledge. 

The definition u hr ** is preferable as it is 
simple and does not involve any possibility of mis¬ 
take ; for what HR is we distinctly know, namely, HR 
means the consciousness or the knowledge of the fact 
that we know, i. e. t 

In 81333 , there is what is called and 
You see a 33 and you have an idea of its form and 
qualities. What you see is (3$R3 (the qualified ) and 
what you have an idea of is (the qualifier). 
In the above case 33 is a f^Nr and the form and pro¬ 
perties of it are the f^33. 33faiN3> —in 

«?333, the knowledge consists in comprehending the 


Digitized by ^.ooole 



() 

property of possessing the and other peculiar^ 
ties in the fMN as, for example, to. 

The faro of *R or w&m includes both and 

fisfaq or m The origin of arc consists only of the 
idea that a certain thing exists and it is of a certain 
form or sort. 

_ i _ 

RhN or aw 

which distinguishes the 

and 

Now of a *33j you may have two kinds of know¬ 
ledge viz. Wr and ercatf. 

^ ) <raaw*: < yfakmxx: ) zn&m: i 

In this means that which is signified by 

„ Wltfarc— flfo i awfe . 

Thus in both sorts of knowledge, the fafN is the 
same ; but in the Wl you assign a right aw to it 
( i . e, } that aw which belongs to it) and in the sraatfr 
you assign a wrong aw. is an attribute which 

does possess but not afa. It is not but 

flfcpnaTO, Thus when you apprehend a *sg to be a 
the is but the aw is sfeaw which it 
really has not: *J3jrcaw^: 9?3*rc: aatf: | 

rcwrcift «4rcaw^: 3T3 *r: 3mi§i | 

Cf. ?reaw$ <Raar i 

cp^ *tt fts&n ii (go ) 

Dipikd :— 

In all direct cognition, the thing seen and the 
form in which it is seen are supposed to be related to 


Digitized by ^.ooole 


( ) 

each other as the quralified () and the qualifier 
( ); or there is the relation of afrerc and a?i^i be¬ 

tween a thing and its form. For instance, a vz itself 
is the fafN and its form is the On this sup¬ 

position of and the objector saysyour de¬ 
finition of 3 rt is not applicable in the following 
instance, viz. when I take as the thing seen and 
as the form in which is seen. The w “ ^— 

” when stated in form is—cf^fcT, ( ^2^ ) 

(TOrera:) 9T3*TC: m§:-~ u e. } aT3^: 

wfc. This is not a was the definition of sun is not 
applicable to this for the reason ^2WR:,—we see 

as a matter of fact in W2, but we do not see a TC 
in TO*.” 

The says: “ By <TS[ft &c # , we are not to 
understand the ajrercarpfct 3***, but we must say that 
there is a uara iu the thing seen and its form; and it is 
not that the must necessarily be the airarcan^WflF*. 
On this supposition the smr " TO* TOrerc * is true, and 
does not become an auwr. In TO* there is the s*** o 
*2 and this is enough. Thus it is not a case of ejanft/ 

(The first interprets the SHift as 

; and then he interprets it as swri&ra***^ ; and 
thus he creates confusion). 

Again the says:— <c * is a m and 

your definition of auror applies to it; thus:—*>fad3FtW!*- 

The replies: 

u What you say is not the case; because my de¬ 
finition of am means 

fRU ajsfin. In the above case, it comes to ***$^f ( 

wwAi) 

) mm; ; u e, } the m 


Digitized by ^.ooQle 



() 

* I$r: qffircfrft ’ will become an when I say iqjpja- 
(the other parts of the tree except where there is 
) which has no has The cogni¬ 

tion of the in that place where there is $4Rl*lPl 
( t. e, t on the ie§Pj3*$a* ) is a mere delusion. The cog¬ 
nition of in that place where there is is a swr. 
Therefore my definition of jwt has not the fault of 
aifaanfa on this strt ” 


-:o:- 

XXXV. 

is an in some cases but it is regard¬ 

ed here as a agw, viz., a$ anfopRT: or 
It means true direct cognition, 

a^3ftfcT=Inference. <r*RrfcT—Knowledge of re¬ 
lation between a name and the object of which it is 
a name. 5n^=Communicated or revealed know¬ 
ledge ; knowledge conveyed by words. *^oj=Opera- 
tive cause. 3*WH=Analogy based on 31?^, 51^, 
3T«p?H, 3W* and ^ are the causes or the means of HR; 
while 5RJ3T, ai3fal%, 34fai?t, and are the results of HR. 

(TlljWrf gqr**t=That which is the cause of ( i, e,, 
which leads to) true direct knowledge is called srr— 
Processes by which the mind can arrive at true and 
accurate knowledge. 

These four divisions are according to the Naiya - 
yikas. The Vais'eshikas acmit two srowrs only viz., 
4R5J and 9Tg*TR. 

The Mimdnsakas add two more viz., 8p*iqfa and 
81343ft* to those of the Naiyayikas. Of these Miman- 
sakas, the followers of mrrc* give only five,viz. the first 
four with aisfafa. The followers of *is give six, adding 
813455 ft* to those of 5W14RS. Some of the qfcrffofis add 
3*14 and Ijfas* as srrs. flffcws say that is also a srr* 


Digitized by ^.ooole 



( 8 * ) 

—Inferencee from circumstances, argq- 

—Non-perception, non-recognition bJcflST—Tra¬ 
ditional instruction. : l 

( aio ) 

( Vide notes to section LI.) 

XXXVI 

There are two definitions: (i )3Rii9rc9 W and 
(ii) o9 m R999 t9 rc *t 9>R9 9R9 (9R9 is the peculiar cause 
underflying a certain operation, action or motion ). 

3?9!9TC<n^rc9s are those which are peculiar to indi¬ 
vidual cases and act one or more in particular cases 
exclusively. 

9T9R9*ER9s are the causes of all things produced in 
as much as they are ^Ts. They are nine in number: 
im, <TcW, nd 

All 9T9TC9$rc9s have a certain 9& called *u*jk«i*wW<W and 
all 9&s have a certain 9$ called «w^inl and this 9$ 
pervades all 9>Nts. 

9>t %9f fe g9 5rfcf 9*3*9 T hat which is 

the 3TC9 of everything produced is 9I9R93R9. What¬ 
ever is measured by 3 j4*h is UT9K93R9. For instance 
92 has tw o 9$s, viz., 3I&9 and 92*9. 92 as a 3$ ( and 
not as a 92 ) has §9*, 3t«5 &c. as the But as 

a 92, it has the potter, ^R, 939°* &c. as the 
aransrcrows. 

SMWRqdT is the 3R9*n of a 3$ as 3T^*TT and not as 
a particular 3$ only. 3RH9R93R9*n is the 3K9*rr of a 
3T9 as that particular 3T$ only and not as 3T9*tT in 
general: 

Tke definition of sn9it93K9dr:—3i3f*9f9f^39T 9T 3($dF 
*ift*i%rr 91 wiffl %9 9i9R93R9*fT. ( 9T9R93R99T is the cor¬ 

responding 3R9*TT of a 3i^df as measured by 3F9*9 and 
not by the nature of any particular thing as 92*9 &c.) 
In the case of a 92 the cause corresponding to t4e 

7 


Digitized by ^.ooole 



< A. ) 


^j5rh of the ^2 inasmuch as it in a ^ is the flWlWRor— 
common cause in the formation of a thing, ftsfan— 
1 corresponding. 

We say qtfmqtowMcil because ^cTT is a vague 
term, for it refers not only to that exist but also 
to qsrcs that may be possible. But generally and 
are the same. In the case of a 3T 

5R*RIT 3T ( so much of as is 

measured by ) Thus is a vague term and 
hence the above definition. 

If we say q gftnfewi *n q*$Rn afasftai ^rtt 

then we shall have the wiwot of 
only and not a general one. Therefore, 
qf%gsrepfar fiqft a q ff TO r is the general defi¬ 
nition . besides such as *rac% 

; mm. In the a there is and besides 

Thus refers to particular qa^s, because a 

particular qa$i shares the with other sr$s and 

also it has the ^ of existence itself ,; L e . qa^ shares 
«i&ewj in connection with ^acq and all other $&s ; and 
. it has the q3<qq4 peculiar to itself. 

refers therefore to particular «i$s, 
these having viz., qasq in the qr^i-qa and 

so on; and those $rc®rs which come into play in a 
particular case only and not in all cases are arorarc*!- 
qOTs ; i. e . causes peculiar to particular cases. 

sqm means that which directly produces the 
effect to be brought about by that cause, when it 
itself is produced from that original cause. ( q>rc®r) 
(qsrcor) ( «r$) sqm.*^ To make 
it more clear wrt Sic* awwnwwrf 
ssm: 1 A fsrc must undergo a certain sqm before 
it fells a tree. Now what is the sqm it undergoes ? 

* You say is the q>Rsr and the amrmrcs of the fell 
ing of the tree, The sqm must be in the fare and the 


Digitized by ^.ooole 



must be the TO ifowi of that sqm*. The sqm* is 
then fsrcqrcs#!. The effected by $3rc is 
and the aim viz., fsrcqroMiro is the producer of the 
5Fq ( *; e. m ) of fSR viz., ispwfaqm. 


A then is the srerarrorc®! which has sqm 
i. e. something which is produced by the and 
which produces the effect of that n®r. 

‘ «qmqq/ i 


(* s.) 

^T^of—$TC®i is that 
which must necessarily or indispensibly exist before 
a ^ and which is not 3Fq*nf%5 ( z * which other¬ 
wise could not be; which is net otherwise constitut¬ 
ed; which is not disproved to be a cause by some 
other circumstances ; which does not refer to ac¬ 
cidental and remote circumstances. ) 


ft sqrraq | m ^ ) 

The word faro removes the aiftsqrf^ on tot; be¬ 
cause the work done by it might have also been done 
by the potter himself. It may be in a particu¬ 
lar case, &c. are such $rc*is‘ without which the 
*cNts arc impossible. 

Though by the word faro in the definition 
is excluded from the $rc®r of to kind in general ( be¬ 
cause a uwx is not necessary in the general pruduction 
of TO kind in general though it is so in the particular 
TO in question ), the exists in the particular case 
in which it was used for bringing the clay as faro or 
absolutely necessary. In order to exclude it from this 
particular case in which it was used for bringing the 
clay, we put in for is e rem fog and it 

comes under the third kind of 3Fqqrt%$, is only 
an incidental cause existing in the formation* of a 
TO, along with $ 551*5 &c. which must necessarily ex^ 
St in the production of tos, 


Digitized by 



( ^ ) 


If we define srcq as src^qfa^qjRjftqq -This 

definition will extend to q&Ht itself for q>r$ is the sqiro 
(%qq) of itself: wherever the q*§ is there is. 
4 $l4%qq qq%/ %qq=Existing in all cases. But 

a qsri is not ftqcPjfcfa, therefore inserting we 

avoid the sifaanfa on 

The objector says:- is the «rcq of q^.' 

The says:- 4 It is not ’ for it is not a?q?qqi(%5. 

Its being ftrW to qs depends upon the <F3S. 

Therefore cFg^q is not independently the q>rcq of q z. 
By the addition of BPFqqr, and others are ex¬ 

cluded from being the q^q. 

$3T55 is %q?rjjfii% to the production of a qa; but 
fSfWfal must exist before the qa and therefore to 
avoid such et%«qt% we say 3H?qqif%^. The frairsfarr 
is said to be to a qs first supposing him to be 

tjcjffrT to $3i^, The in his capacity of the qreq 

of $313 becomes to qa but not independently. 

Instead of &c, if we simply say faRFjf 

&c, this will not do, because being a relative 
term we must insert qptftqq &c. ; simply %qcT$ &c. 
will include everything and anything. 

Definition of aFqqiftrf^:— 

nq cR^apq^ i (fa<> q. ) 

8Fqqn%$ comprehends causes indirect as well as 
those that are simple, mere accompaniments of the 
essential but totally unconcerned in the produc¬ 
tion. The sense of the word 9Fqqrfa£ is something 
.which you can explain in a way other than by calling 
it a direct cause. 1 A superfluos cause. ’ 

The 9Fqqrf%ft is of three kinds:—( i ) qq qfcq q?t 
q 5i% iltfaq q srfq q\?qqf%^—That is apqqr- 

with reference to that q>Pt the being antecedent 


Digitized by ^.ooQle 



( «) 


to which is not independent but as associated with a 
third thing, e. g. cFgf*? or ^ 3 ^ is in the case of 

TO thus:-*rc (cT^rr) ^ ^ or ( to ) 

srfci <T ( TO ) ^ or 

( ii ) «F* ^ *T 5ift 8W«<d t 

afo ^kwiRuih. 1 That which being ascertained as 
existing before a third thing ( ) is prevented 

from being a cause of an effect to which it is 
known to be antecedent. TO must be produced 
in 3 ir»rf. It occupies some space; then is it ( 8 ir»rf ) 
a necessary antecedent ? The existence of 8n^BRT 
itself cannot be proved absolutely or indepen¬ 
dently of auything else. 8irerer itself you know 
to exist to account for the production of 
In its capacity of ( or as being the 

of ^ ), it becomes to TO but not in¬ 
dependently. 8n$RT exists as directly connected 
with snsrcr is at all times to TO, TO and 

others because it is fag. There is no direct sensual 
perception of snrosr, but it may be proved to 
exist indirectly to account for certain phenome¬ 
na, such as sound &c., and thus you have reason 
to suppose 8JR5RT as <$lfrT to TO. ( SF^ffa^TO Slct 

Another instance :—fg refcn is 3T^ran%5 in the 
case of a to, as farafan is TO^ifa only through $55j?5- 
W&& 5lfa 5TRT $551*5^31 TO 5rf% TO 

sit% fssia/TOT ( disproved to be a cause ). 

(iii) 

being produced by those that exist and must 
exist before necessarily in all cases, if in the 
particular case of the kind, other things pre-exist 
incidentally ( i. e . not existing in other cases at 
all) those things are 8Fq*nfa$. Since TOT is not 


Digitized by ^.ooole 



(w) 

wanted everywhere, it is not a W»T. Along with 
those that must exist in all cases, if in a certain 
case there is something additional, then that is 
not but simply For instance, qreai- 

m sfa WWRPi. In a certain —mango 

for instace, a new is introduced by means of 
qre. Then the may have several things which 
are besides qra, of which is 

one. ( The sinwra of a q>f$i is supposed to be foRPjjl- 
of it; srpmjq is enumerated in the grarorawrs 
of all things, because there must be the non¬ 
existence of a ^ before its production. The 
jpqjimgra is a greg for the production of both 
in the case in which up* is produced not by qre 
but in the course of things and in the case in 
which it is artificially produced by the applica¬ 
tion of heat). Thus qre and are the 

of and must exist before is produced. 
Now in the case of a certain mango, by the ap¬ 
plication of heat the as well as the ^q is 
changed. Of that new so produced there 
was die sinigra as has been explained, as of the 
new ^qalso, before the ptoduction of Now 
speaking of IF? only, is necessary and 

is only incidental, both these swras being 
before the production of *fh. For in all mangoes 
in which there is the production of a new 

is essential; but in a particular case, a 
new ^q being produced simultaneously with the 
rpq, there was the ^qqrmtrq that is simply inci¬ 
dental, Thus wnq is an instance of the third 
kind of e rqqi fa g. 

Some say that the third kind of is not 

wanted if f^RT is put in the definition of q>rc°r; what is 
done by foffi is done by the third kind of 
for-this kind of notices those things that are 


Digitized by ^.ooole 



incidental to a q»$r and are not therefore the «bitos of 
that fora, of course, excludes those things. Thus 
one or the other must be omitted: either ffa?r or the 
third spwffe Some say that f^RET must be retained. 
Some say that the third must be retained. 

Others are for the retention of both, which seems 
more accurate. The view of the may be 

as follows: ^ 3PT*n- 

I W afcT ^nTORPtTOlTOS i 

Eft 3rft swfo q wwHft s g 

WlWwtS^iqTf^: I TO l TO i m i «P l 5f% ^RgTTORT 

^eerr i tot qsqi\hM«ni^tvn^Et i ^ qaqmiwiK- 
kr qsitr fa ii qpre i 

RlEt I ^Rf^falcSER®^ W5T^ I «T 


^ TOERJWl^PTOtSr s%q:—An ass which is 

accidentally associated- for bringing clay in the case 
of the production of a ^3-with qp¥, =g*R and others 
which alone produce another without the aid of 
that (RW, is 3pRnfa$ with reference to the SfcT TO. 
The propriety of the word fa*ET in the definition of 
«BTTO is to prevent the TORT kind in general ( some in¬ 
strument of carrying the clay ) from being the *Brro 
• of TO kind in general. The third apNifeft is useful 
in excluding a tort from being the cause in the case 
of the particular to. “ If, however, instead of this, 
the word sprt in the Def. were made to refer to a 
thing ( belonging to a class other than the one im¬ 
plied by the word in the same ) viz. <T2$, then 
TORTR can be shown to be speitUr*, but it will be im¬ 
possible to undrstand how we can institute any com¬ 
parison between the causes ot effects each belonging 
to a different class.” is that which imme¬ 

diately exists necessarily before at the place where 
that is produced . This ^REFj^ffaR is not in tort- 
TOEPT and therefore the third cannot come 

Under the definition of *RTO]. 


Digitized by 



(M) 


Some writers and especially the g'wrcstorc give 
five kinds of — 

(1) 9% «m<to ^FT 38% 

51 % i to «r2rt^5 si% i 

(2) TO *TO%TOTO%^S 3 *ci: l WTOWTOT- 

TO«1fcfoft 3&% c^TO lfe ^ I TO TOTO*. • 

( 3 ) TO srf^T TO 51% 38% 

TO cKTO 5J% TO«n%^W; I TO 51% TOT TO I 

(4) 51% <$c|%c3 3$&l TO TO% 5T% 

38% TO TOr€ 51% TOSlfeTO^ I TO f55T5^: 51% I 

(5) erey i fflftqaqfeffi i 33 5%^% a% ? RTOqi%$H. 1 to 

TOTOi 5|%TOT: 1 

The first two in these together correspond to 
the first in the text; the third and the fourth to the 
second in the text; and the fifth by itself to the third, 
though not quite exactly in the wording. 

XXXVII. 

—»—:o:- 

There are three causes viz. ( 1 ) co-inhernnce 
cause or substantial cause; material cause ( 2 ) non- 
substantial or formal cause ( 3 ) instrumental or effi¬ 
cient cause. 

3TOfito TO “ -TO*%d TO 3<qs% 3ctl 

—eww *%ro. ct h E p to is that to being 
related in sraro ( intimate ) relation whith which a 
is produced; that with which an effect is in TOIR 
relation. 

“ TO3 ^ 3 %* i&t 33. ’iSTcTO ^ g cq qh TO3: TOT%- 
wr p ^5 :1 (*nt* %o ) 

(i)TO%^ *% TO TOI31%TO^-- 

«13TO%TO»T is that which bears a S3TOtelation to 
a thing to which also the bears a3TO3relation. 


Digitized by ^.ooole 



( ** ) 

qrf 5# <FS^Fit ^roi artifaw^A: i , ,.; 

( ?2|To t[o ) 

(ii) $rc®ta ( u e. q&rter t i Ewwfr f ) sfafaf*.....i 

srtiftfR®r is that which exists in one thing by 
W relation in which also the tlGM>K u i- exists 
interrelation. 

f|<fajtrftwnn; ‘/srcto ‘ 

.1 srcfrr ^ s* TT^nr^ ct^% 

( i. e. ^ ^ terser ihm wi swtf 

sfo *cr 4 *r*fcr, QT^t aTtiRrwt 1 

The illustrative figures would be as follows: 



/ • .. ^ * r» 

Now why is not eej^PT the forma l caus e 9^ 
qs^q is produced by 5P^r but not by -<Eg«Jita ip 

the case of qs^q will be a kind of sTr^Wlfa^ an 4_ P^t 
«FR®r at all. d«d43pi is merely an accompaniment of 
q^q.The *q of a m depends upon the fq of the 
The idea is:— r ,;- r> 

5pgd^«iei q* ^ ^fj^rer z&k. 

<*J$q aft 8 R#i?[: . 0 

.. In the definition of formal cause the word *W< U W 
is necessary because it must satisfy the conditions <p 
8 


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(^) 


a thing being a t. e. first it must be shown that it 
is a and then 


dfcllfcrltowwwi ^rpt cfai :— 

Here is a total confusion in the meaning of the 
word arerarcq. The above means, as it stands, 
*.* Among these three, that which is the Brararevrawi 
is the tout. ” This obviously implies that all these 
are not dJUiwifErcois or that there are among the three 
causes some which are not totptout. 

But all these are arararcorwns in the same sense 
in which we have used the term before; evidently 
then the word arcrrarcur is used in this sentence in a 
different sense from that in whieh it is used befor. 

If we had said ftN wwfI ^ o4NK43«raK'N 

$PC<>1 ^ wi, the word arerproui would have had the 
usual meaning. 

Now in the first place tout itself has been de¬ 
fined in two ways: ( i) anwronNKti TO*ur tout and (ii ) 
•ranmur $rut 

The above confusion can only be cleared by sup¬ 
posing that definition (ii ) is adopted in this as the 
definition of to®t* But how is it that in the same text 
two definitions different from each other are used for 
the same thing ? Properly speaking $rcur tout 

is the original and genuine definition ( of course, aRTT- 

has not here the same sense as it has everywhere 
else. What that sense is will be explained below ). 

But the srr^fas proposed the addition' of 
on the ground atf^nfifarcurro v . They 

argue that is the arerPTOuPBRur of the 5igj^r as 

well as the itself ( they undetstand the term in 


Digitized by ^.ooole 



( *) 


the original sense ); but the former is not mm whereas 
the latter is. ! qaj: is the ^>i according to sn^ffas andi 
not the mm. itself. is the mm and not the S3KTCET 
Therefore they say that should be added. If 

is added, t. e. if the definition were kuwpr* 
tfrerctf , the wr would be &c., them¬ 

selves. (srcnwr has its usual sense here ). 

But if the definition be ercnwi , the 

mm is the mm. itself, as $3rcrcrcr &c., and the 

sense of would be as follows:— 

mfi or That 

is the whieh is driven off or set aside by the 
absence of the fruit, i. e. which is necessarily followed 
by the fruit. If the fruit does not follow, it shall 
not be considered as i. e. that which i * im¬ 

mediately and necessarily followed by the fruit is 
uKummK'Ji and that same is the w. Thus in this 
case the definition ‘ sjgiwi ’ is equivalent 

to ‘ mm mm’ or 1 omm 

mm. * Here *3Pirc itself becomes the mm. 

As shown above, there are two views:— 

(i) If you understand the definition to be 1 uraiwi 

’ here the word sraiwr is to be understood in 
the particular sense of and aJTCR' itself be¬ 

comes the 

(ii) If you understand the definition to be 

1 you are not to nuderstand in 

the above sense, but in its usual sense; and the is 
not here mm. but it is that in which the exists. 

Of mz the 3?grarc<n$K«r8, as we take the term, are 
§^, &c. But if you understand srcnwr in the other 

sense, sqrcrc is the srcnqrcrarcq and not 3 $, ^ &o. In, 


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( ); 


the usual sense, you add ^trairotand then$3R, &c. 
afce the wr. But in 1 srerercq ,’ fsrcreRi, 

&c. are TO* - ^ . 

•In the usual sense alt these are BWlWi$K°is of ra 
But when he says he obviously takes • 

®9RR to mean 9Rwrc<n*rc«i and not the things to which 
s*lNrc is confined, 


•Q» . . . 

^ ■ XXXVIII.' 

• . . . . , • • , . < • i 

Here SRW means tl the 

organ of sense, the power, or means of perception.” 

(«!IRT is the $*Rift«6rc®r of hr or all perception. 
i$ the $l°T of all *R. The ®^nr in all cases of hr, is 
HR is the ^ ). 5RRP9R is that *R which 
^produced by the union of the objects and the 

i ‘ ■ f : PtfSwTO—Having got no in it; i. e< general; 

the nature of which has not been ascertained. It is 
*._£• there is no connection between a 
and its It is also that kind of *R in weich we 

do not distinguish between the and sra*. Such 
a *R is a mere sensation. It is incapable of defini¬ 
tion. It is defined in the Dlpika as 

—Attended with particulars or faffaR. It 
is a HR in which we know a thing as possessing a cer¬ 
tain nature or character. It is defined in the Dipika 
as:—" 

Cf, sffoRftoi farSte^rfJRR; w * src 

aw srfW, btrt 

J 3R ^ f^re^R^ (^O ) 

5RRT is again divided into two kinds. viz. ( i ) 
produced by external senses and (2 ) —■ 


Digitized by ^.ooole 



( tt ) 


not cognised by the exterdal senses, or mental. The 
in acts of is of six -kinds as treated in 

section XXXIX of the text. In the 

viz. is of three kinds : (i ) SRPRW, ( 2 ) *R 8 goi 
and ( 3 ) # 1 ^. 

( 1 ) When the srrftf is known, that becomes; 
the sqjqR by means of which all the things that are. 
the substratum or species'of that SRR? are known. 

( 1 ) We get perception by the mind of all 
things which are the subject of that $R (previous 
knowledge ) .by means of ©sink which has for its cha¬ 
racteristic previous knowledge. Without the assist* 
ance of this it is impossible to get the know¬ 
ledge of the particular intention and propriety of the 
things which form the'basis of the work of a poet. 
We cannet appreciate, without this the charm- 

in such lines as— 

?Rt ( Meghaduta ), 

or ). 

To properly interpret the first line, we must 
have the previous knowledge that all stffa persons 
manage to return home on the advent of rainy season. 
In the case of the second line, J;he meaning will not 
be adequately grasped unless we dissolve the com¬ 
pound as qfcTt —such a dissolution, 

however, excludes chivalrous feeling towards the 
fair sex. 

( 3 ) Great sages have the perception of every 
thing by the mind through the viz. (me¬ 

rit acquired by meditation ). 

Cf. 1 uRagmi sr 1 

stf*Rt s$*r*u 

(*•>_ 

5 R 19 is sometimes defined as 1 sri^r* $R^.’ The 


Digitized by kjooole 



( ) 

passage which is subjoined explains the definition:— 
*ir sifR*R^<R*R r ^Ri % shw i si 

wmm * i sir% 

{frRIWM W«Rt 5T 3 *RR I 

In this section the srrt is meant to be the areisreRjr 

and hence it excludes (torn? which is not sir and 

mortal. 

« 


XXXIX. 

The cause of 5RR13R viz. the union between the 

and the object apprehended is of six kinds. 

The fourth kind is simple *urr; for example 
the relation or uuion between and £i^r; be¬ 
cause the srftfsR proper is the strtct confined in 
the cavity of the ear and is the property of that 
strtct; and consequently the relation is fpnra. Cf. 

The last is important. It is called Afc|w|o|RftiuRR. 
If you have the srrrr of ^srr. then what is the re¬ 
lation between the thing seen ( totor ) and the 

? But the eye cannot apprehend the srr (viz. 
TOtm in the iustance taken ). It only apprehends 
the present condition of the viz. the condition 
of its being without a ^2. Thus there is no direct 
union between the eye and the tour. The eye is in 
contact with the whice has the property of 
WTR or which is the fattR of the *rrr. Thus 

in the case of qrr, what you have the knowledge 
of is not the absolute fact of the existence of the srr 
but the condition of a thing with the eye, as be¬ 
ing with the property of the «RR of a certain other 
thing. 

Thus the know¬ 
ledge got in these six ways is srrt. 

In this case the rnr is the sfaqst itself. It is evi- 


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( AA ) 

dent that he edopts for he says, 

and can be only in the above 
sense; the «inrc being the six-fold 

But in the other sense itself will be the 

for it is the szirorc and empire is the essential. If 
the sajfqrc does not exist, the result will not follow. 

gc qgKra w qi ( ^ ^ swr 

is the of that 3*n*fr3*ra. ( The Naiy&ikas 
say that all are but not others. But ^13 

appeals to the touch as does a to there¬ 
fore 3?3 is 5i^r as emphatically as a Notwith¬ 

standing this, they say that the latter is and not 
the former. Again ^ has not a It is a guna 
and they have included 5K under thus they 

contradict: themselves.— N. B *—For the refutation 
of this doubt refer to the 2 nd Section XLVI 

Dipika ), 

XL. 

or Deduction is the knowledge produced 
from —logical antecedent. ( The means of draw¬ 

ing a conclusion is sigiTFT and sigfafa is a cognition 
that is led to by ). 

&OT&:—It is one thing’s ( i. e. 
|§’s ) being always followed by another. For instance 
Smoke is always followed by fire. 

The sense of is very important, viz . f^i^T 
i. e. srsMlfafl ?T or as 

cl?r —meaning that * is not found where 

is not found ’. The form how a is stated is 
called sifaJRj: as TO 3?: TO 8?fo ($r ). 

^ 5 : -The means by which we prove a thing as 
existing in a certain thing. For instance qp is a 53 by 


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(*») 


which we prove the existance of fire on a mountain. 

The ways of defining ^ ) are as 

follows:— 

(i ) The la's being ^ 

i.e. the non-existence of^g where the is not. 

(ii) sqtftf:—The fe’s not being 

different from that which has ST 3 *;. Since ®*in% is a 

|gq$ i. e., ^gj*re, W*i is never absent from^g. 

Here we define after Rtfcfts, f. *. negatively. 

The above two definitions are given from the 
stand point of *3- In all cases where the V,. is there 
the is, wherever the is not there the $g 
is not. 

Why not a positive definition\ “ s*nfa:*’ 

will not do for the following reasons;— 

The negative way gives the sense of exclusive¬ 
ness. Negation is an exclusive assertion. The defi¬ 
nition (i) fliwiWTWlfaw - obviously states that ig’s 
region must be less extensive than that of *n«i, or co¬ 
extensive at the most. This can be expressed by fi¬ 
gures for which vide. Figures A y and A t in the . Apr 
pendix I. A y and A ? are the only possible figures de- 
ducible from definition (i ). Definition (ii ) Jiowever 
does not represent by its wording the tg’s being in 
SpaiRra at the same time that it is partially or wholly 
(less extensive or co-extensive ) in Vide. Bj...B 5 
in Appendix I. 

Bj and B s are the same as A} & A 4 ; but the rest are 
also possible and hence the definition would be «tf*T^f. 

or variation, means ^g’s-existence at a 
place where the sra is hot. 

Therefore we first state, for instance, a 
in particular terms and hence derive the definition in 
general terms* 


Digitized by ^.ooole 



( *) 

The definition is obtained froirt the stand-point of ^3 
It is possible to obtain another from the stand-point 
of* rrar:- is the of the I 3 which is m\m. In 

all cases of 13 or the str or Rim must be pre¬ 
sent. is not absent from the place where the S 3 
is. which is wtpra; is always to be found where 
or mtm is. is not absent from the place where 
^ is. To put this in the Naiyayik language it 
would stand thus:— mm is 

that which does not answer to any of the 

non-existence in the same place with 13 is APR, 
that is, $3 is always followed by the spr; cR ( 8 i^R ) 
^ s*n§:, that is “ 

sjf^ui^Ri^RRrlwwR ” is 

The definition in the text is “ sr^ir^r. ”—the 
l 3 ’s with mm or *tr«Ts with ^ 3 . We 

shall take up the other. In the instance, qsr *jjt: 

aif the meaning is, *ifs always accompanies 
smoke. ( From the point of view of I 3 the above- 
the ^ 3 ’s always being accompanied by the mm, i. e ., 
the passive voice is used• whereas from the point of 
view of 3 PR we have the active voice . ) 

What is the meaning of or always ? Fire 

is not absent from the place where is, has always 
this sense. Any place where ^5 is, fire is not absent 
from; i. e., the SP^t is never absent from the 
If in the there be absence of things, on e 

should not be the absence of 3 r|; *. e., the spat should 
not be the of one of the anrras in the |c#ra^T; 

u e. y SPR is Thus limiting or de¬ 

fining the nature of spr, we proceed to state the de¬ 
finition of «*#. wnft is a ^ 3 — i. e. the existence 
of the ^3 where the APR is. Thus, we say 
qissuadiiWaramRTfcraw mn§: \ This is the definition. 
We pointed out the objection to the definition si^ar- 

These are avoided by putting in the 

9 


Digitized by kjoooie 



(Ki > 

first part, for, by saying.we exclude 

the fj’s being more extensive than In fact, (^: ) 

i The first part of 
the definition is also expressed negatively for the 
reasons explained. 

q$T*q tj&——The property of the q$; for 
instance, tjq is the property of the mountain (q$j ) 
in the example, q43t i 

*mra*RTf is the quality of the property of the q^r, 
that is, the t|iHq—the property of existing on the q$j. 

qfcrtfciftRf qqrafar—the existence on mountain 
(qqr) of the smoke (*qr*) or the nature of be¬ 
ing a characteristic of the qqr. 

is the know¬ 
ledge that one thing ( $ 3 ) has the property of exist¬ 
ing on the «WJ and that of having a i. e., being 
always accompanied by *w«! i. e., not existing where 
the is not. 

The knowledge should be unffiMly or character- 
zed by 

proceeds from qroil and the latter con¬ 
sists in our knowledge of ksl as being necessarily a 
q$P *4 or a property of the q$-qqiaq«i is the property 
of the So much is not sufficient. We must at 
the same time know that the has Thus 

if we know f$fqw4 qfa: only, we cannot infer the ex¬ 
isting of fire there. 

The knowledge of *qr c *N*iai we must have with 
respect to that and then only it is that we can 
infer that the mountain has fire. Therefore we must 
dissolve the compound sqr-frrc so as to make it yield 
the above meaning. 

(i)«nf^%q^^qqra4rn?Tqn. This is the usual way 
of dissolution. 


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(**) 


N. B. We are to define in such a way as 
to include all cases of *gfafts whether true or false . 

(ii) The more natural dissolution is or 

°% or ^ We must as a matter 

of fact, have two-fold knowledge of tjq, viz., of its 
and In this way (ii) of the dis¬ 

solution we have only the knowledge of the q$f- 
qjtfcTT. and we suppose that the must be 
or in nature . 

This way of defining does not extend to all 
cases in which 3T«ifafcr is possible, for instance, it ex¬ 
cludes a SWRTO 3151 %^ i. e., the definition has the fault 
of If a man infers smoke on the mountain be¬ 
cause there is fire, supposing that fire is or 

has with tj*T, he arrives at a conclusion 

This is a srjjftnft, yet after all, it is 

an It is based upon a perfectly legitimate or 

formal <ro«rc!t. You have the double knowledge of 
viz., and Though the latter part of 

your knowledge is to all intents and purposes a 
sjiT, it is your notion and conviction and as such, 
from your point of view, it is wqiitAftlCT. 

Thus qfc* has so far as your belief goes. 

But if you take or P OT, it is implied that 

is a universal characteristic of ^3 and that 
it must be true as a matter of fact. It may be the 
idea of the man who infers that is tjqsqpa?. But 
is it really so? No It is not so. Thus in this dissolu¬ 
tion of the compound, such an inference cannot be 
included So the definition would be ajssiTH. The first 
dissolution extends to all cases in which is 

possible. 

What is necessary is not whether ihe $3 is ac¬ 
tually or not, but the man should know it to 


Digitized by ^.ooole 



() 

be a property of the q$r and that it is Whe¬ 

ther it is so or not in fact, such an inquiry is not 
to the point. Thus the man has q*R^t if he knows 
q^reiRF and of the $ 3 . 

qwknuR of which is the i. e,\ «Jil§ftq 2 RF- 
^ HRq[. must be then and ®3iF§fqq3iq>. 

The Dipika has ^q^cTFHR^^ q*R& 

and explains by <*Fll§f«wqqw. But how is 

this explaination to be justified ? The knwledge can¬ 
not be sqifflfafts in the ordinary sense of the phrase . 
It is that is and not the knowledge of 

tjn being the qfi of q^r. The *R«i between tfn and 
is *fFS^$F. We know as a matter of fact that ^ 
is qfSfsgnat. The HR has another wi with e^FTiH. the 
Hr of being on the q^r is I^RFF^R —HR 

is the fatRF of ^u^fqq^HR. We mean HR to be s^nra- 
fite in so far as that HR is Rq*ft of »nfa. is the 

fqq^F. It has fqqr^ctF with reference to sgiiSfoR. It is 
distinguished or characterized by faq$cir. ssnfo: 

^ hr The hr must be qgrefotfoqw^ 

and at the same time ssnfflffqqqqar—HR cannot refer to 
in the.sence in which tjn is «iFf$J%HE. 

So the dissolution of the compound as a 
is not suitable, but as a it is. 

N. B . In old n«is we have, however, 
q^ra^min^. To support this, in a srfrh a^irrft we 
are to understand it as thus:—viz, having a 

6 ^ 1 fa in the knowledge (HF m) of the man who infers 
and not 

But there is one objection to the definition. Sup 
pose qsfa: and t£?: i. e., q^RJRT with re¬ 

ference to one thing and ^irfS^FS^F with rererence to 
another; for there is nothing in the definition not 
to allow this. The definition only notices that there 


Digitized by ^.ooole 



(u) 


must be and q^pfar but it does not say that 

these two must be with reference to the same thing 
or two different things. This is technically called 
—knowledge about two different thigns at 
the same time. In this case as the wording of the 
definition stands, we have ftiq which is both q^rafar- 
!§qq$ and «triHfaqq$; but two things are considered. 
In this case there is no Therefore the defini¬ 

tion of the qtrafr is to be understood in the sense of 


this amendment, viz.. 



'TCOTSt: i ...( i ) 


3R:q<r*RT:—q^r is the with reference to 

or ^qwr (q&T is the with reference to ) 
that and sunft must co-exist. In the example 

of *pp55«R$R, the Igsrerc is but the is 

with reference to the tjjr. He has said that sqiiH 
itself must be faqq of sir but that must be with re¬ 
ference to the thing existing on the q^r. 

f^t: < The 13 must be known 
by the person to be This «qit§ which is /^qq 

of inq is with reference to, or in the 3F5TC of, ^ 
which in its turn is the q$rc of the q^r. 


Dipika :— 

^3 aifaajrft: &c. First, we see some¬ 

thing in the dark like a pillar at a distance. We 
doubt whether it is a pillar or a gsq. Some time after 
we see that he has got hands and we know the ssnfft 
“ asr gw* i. e., we have got the qwrer- 

We have the q^far—that thing 
q$T (man) has got hands. We at once come to 
and not to We do not draw the conclusion 

but after a little while we see by that he is a 
3^q. Finally we have a srei?J and this is generated by 
q*w& So the definition of 3?§r*lfcr viz., tnq*r 

would extend to this sisisr produced after If 


Digitized by kjOOQie 



( «0 ) 

we were to say that there is only in that case, 
the objector would say thare is no atgftft. For it 
would be opposed to the reflected knowledge gqq 
When we see qz &c. we have an atgsqqgrap'f 
as opposed to argftrftiiR. 

In the case above, though the writ was ready 
still we had no fcqraftqr and consequently there 
was no aijjfafct. We may have q*R$ even in srwj but 
then every qtrq^f does not lead to Without 

qqETT no can be had. 

( From the beginning the has said all ). 

Now the says that the definition has not 

the fault of atfcisqlfa, for his definition of aigfaft is to 
be understood in the following way:—qtR^Ri fircqg- 

HR argftrft: I 

Now what constitutes a qqr or what is a q$f 
First he has defined q$ as “ q??: "—mean¬ 

ing ‘q?j is that which has the existence of grai on it 
doubtful’. Now he gives a more correct and cri¬ 
tical definition and it is as follws:— 

feqn^qrfl^i^fKi^wnq: q^n i q^rr means the non¬ 
existence of !§r$ ( u e. t ) accompanied or 

characterized by the absence of the desire to infer. 
The compound is to be solved as faqrcfaqr ( or atgflt«n) 
( or qgf i fT ) swrq: I The awq of a com¬ 
pound thing viz., faqrofaqr—constitutes q^rar. 

The 8 rr of a compound thing is effected in 
three ways. Take for instance qmfaftiBqww 3WR: | 

Here gsq is the flfcra and q®* is the 

(i) The arorq is possible when both the and 

the are absent. In the present case, when 

there is neither the gqq nor the 


Digitized by ^.oooie 



( > 

(ii) When the fasN is absent; in the present case 
when the gw is absent and the *** present* 

(iii) When the fasN"? is absent; in the present case 
when the is absent and the 35 * is present. 

So here in the present definition of q$jrai the 
ftrft is the and is the 

In this case the sron of the compound thing 
fa«iraRwi%Sfaftsfalt is possible:—(i) When there is 
the awrc of both the flTOrcftWTfas and the fait; that is 
when there is faqrafaqr and the absense of fait* This 
is the case in the most ordinary example 

Here we have not the knowledge of the 
( ) and have a desire for inferring the *. e., 

fire (ii) When there is the of the fast** and 
the presence of the that is, when there is no 

fafa and no desire to infer. For instance TOiflftar 
irenjiiFW. As soon as we hear the clap of thunder 
we infer that there are clouds in the sky. Here we 
do not see the fait (clouds) and also there is no 
desire to infer. Still we are naturally led to a con¬ 
clusion. ( iii) When there is the absence of the fMfeW 
and the presence of the fatter. Here in the present 
case when faHWfa^ifa^ is absent and the faft present 
1 . e., when there .is fait and fairafa^i. For instance, 
when we see a house on fire, we see smoke and also 
fire. Here we see the fait ( the knowledge of the 
existence of fire ) and we have a desire for drawing 
a conclusion. We can do so. We can say a# 
though we have knowledge of fire, we wish to 
have it by ai^fait. 

In these three cases, there is <HjEn and there is 

•Qfafa. 

To sum up: aigfafa follows when there is ( 1 ) fait 
and fa*refa*l. ( 2 ) no fait and no fa«m*fa«n. ( 3 )fa*rofa*T 
and no fait* ( 4 th case ) when there ig the presence of 


Digitized by ^.ooole 



( ) 

bolh and fMtei ( and not the ), no will 

be produced. In the present case when f%r^t is pre¬ 
sent and is present there will be no infer¬ 

ence. Suppose there is on the mountain and a man 
sees it; but his mind is directed to something else and 
consequently has no then there will be no 

inference. 

—the knowledge of the 

prevents airfare!. We can have an inference if there is 
desire to infer. ( Vide case iii). 

What is the cause of fire’s burning ? A certain 
if held in one’s hand does not allow the fire to 
burn. If, on the other hand, we have an sfafa which 
makes the fire ( burn, then the fire notwithstanding the 
presence or juxtaposition of the sifNwifa, will burn. 
The cause of burning is the of the srojjpit charac¬ 
terised by the The amra of the compound 

is effected in three ways as in the 

case of <T$r<Tf. 

The fire will burn in the following cases:—( i) 
When both the and the are absent i.e., 

when the 5l**Tfo is absent and the is there. (ii) 
When the is present and the is ab¬ 
sent i. e., when both the and the are pre¬ 

sent and thus the effect of each is neutralized by that 
of the other, (iii) When the 5r*»*ifa is absent and the 
Sfttewra present, i. e., when both 
are absent. 

Cf. i 

aiSHra! stmrc 3 wr * f| u 

11 

wir 11 


the and the 


< 3 -) 


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( ) 

That BjgqR which is sufficient to arrive at a cer¬ 
tain sigffcfa for oneself is RfW^qR,. A certain man 
from the observation of the qf*3: ) 

has come to the conclusion that wherever there is 
tjq there is and then he goes to the mountain 
and desires to know whether there is fire. He re¬ 
members the and then comes to the knowledge 
that the qfo has which is not present where the 
is not i. e ., is universally accompanied by 

This knowledge is called T&qqtR& From this he 
comes to another viz., qfcat i This is 

wft^qR. 

qtfrftgqR is that which consists in the use of the 
statement containing five parts intended to give 
knowledge to another person having himself come 
by it. ' ^ ' 

y n qlgqR is not different from qtptfguR. The lat¬ 
ter is simply a formal way of stating. In ^qptfrgqR we 
Jiave only the kr of the sqrflr and and thence 

the Inference. 

The five members of q^r^qR depend upon 
dialectical necessity more than on logical necessity. 
But this is not the only thing. Perhaps the last two 
members are due to the necesssity of argumentation. 
Bat in the remaining also there is some dif¬ 
ference. When you want to convince a person you 
must prove to him two premisses. The minor pre¬ 
miss is proved by SRftj and the major is proved by an 
illustration. In our own sfjjqR the major is already 
believed. 

English Logic is a Science of thought and is 
conversant with determining the laws of Thought. 
You want to show that by granting the premisses to 
be true you can find out the relation between the two 
premisses and the conclusion. 

In *qrql«jqR there is only Deduction and there 
what is necessary for Deduction . is . only given. Iij 
io 


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( »* ) 

the case of qmtfgqR there is a combination of Induction 
and Deduction , since we are required to prove 
the sqrfa especially. In we have five mem¬ 

bers according to the dialectical necessity. With re¬ 
ference to the first three it is necessary jin this sense 
that Logic is a science of proof and not of the laws 
of thought. The premisses are not granted true. 
Looking at Logic in this sense it is necessary to 
prove the anft by illustration . Hence the three pro¬ 
positions. In you have only to remember 

the anfa and not to prove it. 

-:o:- 

—The f&n which is sqrffr- 
lqftru is on the qqr or because there is ^3 which is 
siwisqicq. ( That which proves the is ffen.) 

srara* wm: 1 jqsfrqw w 

WFngfcwfcwfa: 1 »>rq$qqqfa,qi% f&m 1 qqrft: imq 

q*m# f&iwtRh 1.qq?qiqfafa i ' q q^r: <rqr 

I. 

j Dipikd 

The objector says:—If you say two things ( viz., 
the SPR and the characteristic ) together again and 
again it does not lead you to a belief in the sqrfa; 
e . g “ wherever you have got a qrftq substance it can 
be^scratched by ”—so the sqrfft arrived at is qq qq 

qq qq * and this you see a hundred 

times. But we have a sqftqrc ( an exception ) in the 
case of a diamond, which, though there is qn$q<q in 
it, cannot be scratched by iron. Thus simple 
does not lead to a universal belief. We do not come 
to a general conclusion that 14 whatever is qiffiq is 

To this the answers:—Hjfrq&r alone would 

not d o;Jmt y ou must have scqrcsrc wherever there 
is no or qqqnsiq accompanied by the absence 


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() 

of ; and then we can believe in the sairfo* 

What is ajftRTCfrrc? We are said to have the knowledge 
of arfirer* either when we are convinced of the 
or when we have a doubt of the —sfar- 

—is arrived at by or by itself sometimes. What 
is is that which points out or brings before 

our mind the srd«i ( or snfa) of the rupture or cessation 
of vfawrare between things which are the means of 
arriving at a ajrffr and which clear our doubts about 

Again the objector says:—How do you take a 

when you have not all smoke and allfire before 
you? 

The answers:—The knowledge of all is 

possible because what we take is the knowledge of 
the common nature of ^ and We do not look 
to suffc but to 

(& c —If the fact that wherever there 
is there is fire be not considered to be true, then 
there will be a without a and since a 

cannot exist without a w»r; this doubt must go away. 
If you conceive the relation of cause and effect, then 
the doubt will at once vanish. »iifa5TfS$c3=The con¬ 
ceiving of a thing to have a by one’s own exper¬ 
ience, whether it may be universally true or not X 

By Induction general propositions are laid down 
on the principle of the Consistency of Nature i. e., a 
cause must precede and produce its effect. 

XLII. 

The five members are:— 

( I) Assertion ( stated hypothetically ) — the 
mountain has fire. 

( 2 ) Reason,—’Because it has smoke. 


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( 'SO 


( 3 ) Proposition,—All that has smoke has fire, 

( 4 ) Assumption, ( or application of the reason ). 
—and the mountain has fire. 

( 5 )Deduction or conclusion,—Therefore it has 

fire. 

sfcifiT or q=qqsn§w—qftfi 

is the laying down of the q^r as having the 3TR. qqifR 

^cffaRT m ^3: I f$»IJR ^ 5 J%- 

«r^. The is the statement which leads to the 
explanation of the characteristic. The ^3 states the 
reason that leads to a conclusion. 

3515*^1 sqiftRR 

The is a statement giving certain known cases 

which lead to the knowledge of the sqrfa. 

oqHHftfil g g * 5 ^: ’WfcllflfclTO q^R** or 
qiq^ q^qgqqq: l The sraqq is the 

statement which says that the l&T has ain§. 

The faqqq is variously defined:—(i ) 

The £r?r or conclusion is a 
statement that puts forth the q$f as having the RRf 
through the tg. ( ii ) q% R^RiqiftcIRSIcfaiqqi qqq^WRq[ | 

( fa. and q ). ( iii ) 3 Rrf^RRfaqf^Rm<q$fc q=qq fa*WRi* 1 
(iv) ^R9TR^^s^«qqi‘|qq^qNqR« qiqq faq*Ri* i It is 
a qiqq which gives knowledge of the qqt as having the 
flR which is by the 53. 

f^nRsrqt^RJI—You draw the con¬ 
clusion to show that there is no jriwirr by means of 
which this may be proved to be invalid, i. e. f to show 
that by no other means it is qjfafl; or that there is 
nothing to prevent the conclusion from being drawn. 


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XLIII. 

In the Brcrrarcur sense only the is the cause 

of The definition of ftq is uiw^iGqqgqjfa^ 

ft*R—these being only its characteristics. «nf^9R is 
such a UR as may be the of q*ra*1 when of course 
in such cases q*m is the (qwAi4lnwwR«*i 


Rfti% i ' sraqR q 5^ 1 f & 

qirciRi qf^qdt atfrav^nq.' ismfl 

‘ ftwimV x^q ‘ u$ * ^ t eiguRgq- 

—8*jjftR|qft<Jttq|f^l$: | 9fqhq 3cf|q*R I qqrft—*T5R- 

gsrararct q\ *jwreqrftqn, q% qqgqsR 

jBJ§R qfcfsqi^q qqgqflR 8Rfo 5cg^fa I 

«igqRT%ft * sqjqRq^Roi q!t <«4ltiWM«klg4MHr ftWR^f 

sqRRi^cqq^ i (qof«). 

TOU^—Logical antecedent; fact or truth appre¬ 
hended by observation. 

f&intnrcfr—Such recognition of a sign as leads 
to inference. 

zn&m utwi f&i 3 q*"i qf| 1 

«Ri*rarfWq gnqsfifi ja q f 11 

sigiiroi Wi ftu— q t RH * wi *i ft*m . For the second 
line of the above the Dipik& has erdtaiql sqfJrert:, 
mni(Snq^nv «5 W BisiHRHy 

Why does he say ft*mro^ ? He used above 
only. he uses in order to distinguish it from 

< KPiffWFri&T which some say, is the 5tpr. q qqywfflSM 
«tgfofoq>?q q *R1% ( The perception of 

the chatacteristic ). He says q^i^WH^i is not the q*®!. 
By <rci^q*!Hft*i we mean that-theft*! should be actually 


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present betore. If you now infer that yesterday there 
was fire because there was smoke, you draw the infe¬ 
rence now and the ( 5 *r as it was seen yesterday is not 
WWW at the time of drawing the inference. The 
TOOTHWfihi is that which is present at the time being, 
but the srprt or suffer f&r is not a <?• f&r, though it 
may lead to sigfafa. ( It is a vw in the opinion of 
the and 35s). For instance, & qnai 

We draw inference now from the f&i 
) which was seen yesterday. He calls it here 
ffei'NroA in order to discard the theory of some who 
say that it is not the of anything 

but the .qfcngn of the tjq and nothing else 

that is necessary for arriving at an etgfttfcT whether 
or <rcr$. It is the of the f&r that is neces¬ 
sary and not the itself. He says what is neces¬ 
sary is qfo: or, in general, ftfirelteTOR 

1. e. f in the particular case the knowledge of the qfo 
as being faftre by tjjt which in its turn is faftre by sqrfa 
(OTRiqfagfcjj: ). In the case where fSbr is not 

qiTOWT but shfri or ettfta there is an eigfafa. e. g ., 
when you infer the future coming into existence of 
the from a future ffcu. If there will be no heat, 
there will be no rain to-morrow . This you infer 
from a fifcr which will come into existence to-morrow. 

The presence of the is not necessary and he 
says that fe»rui*Rl is wanted. Hence in * q tm&R i 5R 
is to be understood in the sense of 
f&wwi. If the were it must be present at 
the time of inferring ; but we have shown that we 
can infer without such a &*r. 

ftwwril is the of eigfafa if we say erararc* 
■SRR because infallibly follows from 

In the sense of uiimtroirawi or qtsrrt- 

flWR is the w; and is the sink. For wri is 


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< ) 

the vif of «f 3 ( 5 W% whieh is itself wnftpRiT. 

Difiikd 

If is produced by and qqre ja w w, 

what is the necessity of the q^nrir or the knowledge 
of the f*fcr which is itself sqt faftfilB \ 

We can draw an inference even if we know that 
the q^ has got a thing which is e. g., qfogqre- 

q H<< q lfl: . The two ?rs are not necessary, 
fafcWffaq is what is essential for both the q^wqls, e. g. t 
SR?* is not what is wanted, but what is wanted is 
In qisqqtw^t as well as in f gqq<wi& , 
is not necessary . What is necessary is that which 
is sqM by the major term exists in what is denoted 
by the Minor term: or faftreitR is necessary: what is 
necessary is the qrt«T of the ftflT and not the presence 
of the m. < ). 

JThe says that it is not necessary to put 

in bnt it would be sufficient to say that 

«fq q^# I$qp^ and i. e. y not to combine these 

two. This qfo has something Does this 

lead to a conclusion ? This is only one proposition 
and not two; and you have an So how do 

you include this case in ? 

The says that since q*w$ is wanted in both 
the cases, it is better to call the q q qfl by one name 
for the sake of simplicity. 1 qf^o4M<tM4 * 
is a because the thing is not there 

on the qqr. 

The necessity of accepting may also 

be shown thus:—The says that by sqrfarot and 

q^digiw we can draw a conclusion. But he is wrong. 
For if we have sznfaHfa of one thing and qqMdl of 
another thing, we cannot draw a conclusion. For 
instance frotn the knowledge qftjsqicq: and q|#r 


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■( <• ) 

gsqqi^we cannot draw any conclusion as there is no 
connection whatever between the two knowledges. 
This corresponds in Westorn Logic to the rule that 
the same middle term must occur in both the 

•premisses . ■ . ... 

N. B. An siaW m which a 

general or universal proposition is proved, qsjfaqw- 
gfafer—An argftft in which a particular proposition is 
proved. The conclusion of a universal proposition 
is measured by while that of a particu¬ 

lar proposition by 


XLIV. 

fsfrr is a characteristic used for proving anything] 
It is less extensive than the m**. It is of three kinds 
<i) the positive and negative (2)the purely positive 
(3>and the purely negative. 

That a should be both and it 

must have positive as well as negative existence. 
From the definition of ZSWi, it is necessary that we 
must have a fSRt to prove a sqrfo; and every 
must be proved by instances both in as well as in 

gqf^ g qrf lr—The concomittance of the negatives 

of ^3 and spar. 

Siqq ®qi^ sqfq^fatqcT I 

arpro: u 

arr^ qqq <j| arrqq^r cRt: qv^ 1 
1$ qhf^II : u ( T. K. ) 

(enq=m^r!r:=^rT«PTrsvrf^:.) 

(i) That f&q which has the accompaniment of both 
the presence and the absence of the and the 

sqm. in the instance ‘ q^d ^ ' we have both 

the sqif^ts viz., apef^sq^q^ q*n I and 


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( « ) 


TOWT* TO tJTOTO: TOT 3 rd | we have 38 RTS 
in ^rwff ( totto ) to establish and in fcwy (to ) 

to establish ( Vide section XLV.) ( Cf. ) 

STTOUtTOt: cITOTTOl: Sr 5 *l 4 I TOT ^ 

«T^^si4l>H|«q!^^53ir^si^2|5q|^flRt STOTOTfcftft I !(<?• ). 

The in order that it should prove the 

existence of sro on must have the following five 

characteristics:— ( I ) qTO$c 3 —The nature of exist¬ 
ing on the to. ( 2 ) STO ( 3 ) fr?$rrsTlfa:— 

the absence of ^ in a place where the STO is known 
as not existing# ( 4 ) si«nfacnwc3Jt-the I3 must be such 
that its faro viz., the spat—the thing to be proved— 
should not be contradicted by any other spto as in 
the terrors called *ifar. (5) swcsrfcR^rc^—-It Must 
not have any sifaro—rival ^3 which proves the absence 
of the sro. 

( ii) In some cases does not exist at 

all. We have only e. g. t sritaiRt. 

We cannot have the sqRtoroft for there is no arfa- 
of a thing in the whole world. The sreronft:— 
TO TO stfPTO TO TO 3 T*n or <?2. The 

—TO TO «lP^TOT*TPi: TOTO STTOc^HTO: (This pro¬ 
position is false because everything is namable). 
81 ftTOcTOT sfowi ^ TO WrfTOWKt, 

Out of the fiive characteristics, the 33 can¬ 
not have as we have no faro. 

( iii ) We cannot have an STOTOWH when we 
have no ?bfct. For instance srorfoTOT- 

fosrft. to q^T: ( The minor term ); TOT TOJTCk* 

^nTOIl ( The major term )and snwrf^TO S3:. sqfcitaeqift:— 
TO TO TOTOTORTO: TO TO STOTfolWPTO: I TOT *T 2 pfr. 51 3 TO 
TO spnfoTO TO TO sft 8ffTO«Hffr: S2FcIT*Tnn<l STPmrt- 

Here we have no In a SSRr 

11 


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( A ) 


the nmt is known to exist. A semi must be fofawt- 
*WRand must have the $3 also, but it should not be 
comprehended under the q$t. In the present castf 
if we take WT as the S8RT it will not do. 

In this there is no part of the «nj. The 

would be w spitfaw W To prove this 

we must accept the old Indian theory that even 
lower animals have got anmr. wt era, say is the 
Here what we have to prove is of am and 

others when as in a sbrt, smt is known to exist: ( or 
an instance must be given from the wsgr and not from 
). So in proving the statement we take for granted 
what wt have to prove . Here is the erst or 

the thing to be proved of This is the mean¬ 

ing of the nfafij So we cannot have ere 4 h &c. as ssmts 
for we start on the supposition that no living 
creature is known to have atmtt. In a t&Rt, the erst is 
known, meaning that it does not come under 
Here et and others come under dtqfttd* ( ) which 

is dfcwrwrcc.. Here qgr and are co-extensive. 
The form of the would be W u?r flitroqrora: 

W W SNrf^PflR: WT TO: I 5^ Wt I. 5II«nfaESmiTO 
5 t *t 1 wt STcTO 5 t st 1 

Another instance of 

TOTOTO. The ampRznflr of this is: —w W wi wr W 
WT atm:. But here the ( i. e., ^ from arj, 
&c. ) of atm is not proved because we have to 
prove the of sfasft and as atm is a qtflfomr, atm 

is not ( or the *tfam in the present case is 

Here we cannot have an atmwndf because 
we cannot say W cm 5cR^: there being no in¬ 
stance except the s«4t itself which is but the )• 
Here the and the are co-extensive, so we can¬ 
not have any egRt; and if at all we have one, it will 
come under q$jt 


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() 

For other cases of f&i we subjoin the 

following instances;—(i) Jisrajns* swi«i 

sfareiswra.* i and (2) tosrsrcto ansrcl 1 

We can have only the in the following 

cases: 

(1) When the spar is co-extensive with the q$. 

(2) When we take the of a thing as the 
then the sg and the «??j are co-extensive (or when the 
wqs is the 1 $ and the the |g). 

Out of the five characteristics stated of an bfssss- 
in order to be good, the %v«sq^f^g cannot 
have sssratsu as we have no sssr. 

XLY, 

That whose possession of the thing or property 
in question is doubtful is q^r. 

*msr (Similar instance) is that where the thing to 
be proved or established is definitively known to exist 
on it. 

(Contrary instance) is characterized by the 
definitive absence of the thing to be proved. 

Means 


XLVI. 

The word is capable of a double interpre¬ 
tation : (1 ) ^gsswrcret tfci fesrercrr 1 store sitfirercftft- 

1 fest ssfers: i ^ stosrft e?gftT%- 

ssrf^rRsfcR^ 3T sits!* 1 srto%5ito!t 

^t stoteresm 1 * <tost wtm- 

O 6 

^ i («ir. st.) (2) In the «fcw» 2 | the compound is solved 


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( ) 

as tafcwrcrr i Thus we see that 

«r rj means either the false ^3 which looks like a 333 
(true ^3 ) or the fault in a ^3 itself\ 

is defined as follows:— 

( or *Tf^T#T g R^ ! 3 l*<f^c t c^< q Hgq < K 5 tf^qf- 

' aigfaftciRKGURcrc' 1 The object of the real knowledge 

which prevents 9 ? 3 faft or any (subordinate in¬ 
strument ) of atgfaft is called tRT*rrer, or the thing the 
knowledge of which prevents 3*3^ or any of 9*3- 

fa/ct is Inrara. is generelly defined as something 

which seems to be a true ^3 but which is wrong and 
which prevents us from arriving at an inference. 

"flPWK is that knowledge of sqr% which prevents 
and therefore sr^rtor is 
\wwrar being in wrong ^nins weakens the rules of »tg- 
fafa. We cannot say because the sairflc 

is wrong in the case of an 3f%%5$ ( i . e , we find the 
^3 where the SWR is not); so this of prevents 
the of 313(^1% viz., Rnft from being accepted* 

If some one says 3^3*1: we can directly prevent 
his inference by tha sreigifiR of the heat of fire. I can 
say that I can feel the heat of fire if I hold my hand 
near it. So the knowledge of this 5 J 3 WJ prevents $13- 
m itself. 

Table oftarorcts; 

Viral*:— 

(i ) «RfiRrc also called q 3 qrf£ci*. 

(1 ) wuvn, (2) erarcw* (3 ) a*3<TOsrfh 

(ii) 

(iii) SRsrfrw, 

(iv) 9*^3. 

(1) ( 2 ) (3) 813. 

(y)frt^. 


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eifolftre is the same as It means proving 

too much. is necessarily not accompanied by 

snat; cT5T Sraifafa ?T. T^l^r W*F(fa |l% t*5T- 

1 ?r q^rfouc: ejifortScffi: i a^Brf=ci^:=f5r^H *r — 
that which does not necessarily lead to a conclusion. 

is one which is found in the 
zrm of SP«i. It is while the true %§s aae 

qpan*nq3£fa. This leads to the absence of the know¬ 
ledge of that*is, does not lead to the »m8, and 
therefore prevents sqiiHUW and consequently does^not 
lead to the For instance The 

is here ^ i RhhmR«* w>. In a lake where is, there 
is the absence of the w* ( ). In this case the la is 

found in *R$jT as well as In faw; and hence some define 
it as STOTC®!:. This fallacy includes the two 

fallacies of European Logic viz., 1 licit process of the 
major and undistributed middle . 

(1) sp*: M i FMmra rct 1 1 * to 

cT^r uiftmi'nwi ’ Sfa 1 To put this in a 

syllogistic form, it would stand thus in Figure First 

All men are animals. A 

No horse is man. E 

.*. No horse is an animal. E 

Here we have illicit process of the major. 

( z ) aw nsfaWL 1 TO SITOTOtt: 

1 I 

The corresponding English Syllogism in the First 
Figure is:— 

Some mortals are men. I 

A horse is a mortal. A 

A horse is a man. A 

The fallacy here is of the undistributed middle. 


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( ) 

Tbe word may be rendered into English 
by 1 General Plurality of Consequents.’ 

-: o : - — 

trareiTPr is that which does not exist in all sqqrs 
and in all fawjs, ( but it exists only in the ) For in¬ 
stance ‘ fifa: the does not exist in «qqr 

(f %31 things such as &c. ); abo it does not exist 
in fawj (8ifiteJ things such as ^2, <12 &c.) but the $3 
exists in qqr alone. In this case, qpqcq is the ^3 which is 
the of ftsE* in qpq. All the first as well as stfirst 
things having not got *1*55* in them, the knowledge 
namely prevents the 

itself. For we cannot assert or have the apqqsqrfH of 

and filsw on account of the of ?brt, as there 
is no place where is to be seen with firsts. We 
can have alone viz., ^ 

awr ^21%. In other words the ? 3 - 5 i^i-proves on qqr 
( w ) the absence of fasRq because it is sqifrT ( absent) 
from frosirs—which possess the fosicq. ( The 
rule is «nftr: s wm aspirorq sraqfa—That I3 

which is absent from ail the members of that class 
which possess certain attributes, establishes the ab¬ 
sence of those attributes in its own atm-a place in 
which it is found ). Similarly (by the same rule) the 
proves on qraq the absence of sifirswq because it 
is absent from frrcjjrs—&c.—which possess the q4- 
effirewq. Therefore of qpq both etfir^rq and fjfacq are 
proved. But they cannot be so proved because they 
are opposed to each other. An attribute and its anuf 
cannot co-exist. Thus having two contradictory con¬ 
clusions, the tg is 

Af. B .—The knowledge we want in the a?gfin% 
4 wp% fa: is fi^Rqsqr^q^qqi^ m: The aRqsqnf* 


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is ^ a* fcreiR. This does *not holp 

because there is not a single instance to 
prove it. Therefore some hold that this ^3 is 

for as the %§ is ^rw^rffT, we Hence 
cannot have and consequently no 

it is Cf. (i) ^ «nfarft 

=r (4m v^). ( 2 ) 

<**5^ (^r. *t.) 

Hence the reading 4 which is given 

in A and is adopted in the *0«^! and the s^iprctMt 
has a justification. 

The araw^rilRrorer may be called the Fallacy of 
4 particular diversity of result \ To put it into Eng¬ 
lish syllogistic form, it would stand thus:— 

All non-eternal things are things having no 
soundness. 

All things having no soundness are not sound. 

No sound is a non-eternal thing ( i ) 

Again, 

All eternal things are things having no soundness. 

All things- having no soundness are not sound. 

No sound is an eternal thing ( 2 ). 

Thus we see that we get two contradictory con¬ 
clusions i. e.y two contradictory things are proved 
of one and the same thing which is absurd. And 
nence we can have no inference. If however, 
we take the srarercntg to be it will 

be a formal fallacy; the premisses which we get from 
our knowledge that is and that it is 

possessed by alone, are, viz., (i) No eternal 
thing is a thing having soundness. (ii ) Sound is a 
thiug having soundness. The conclusion we want 
to arrive at from those premisses is 14 sound is eter¬ 
nal ” which is a positive conclusion but one of the 


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premisses is negative and consequently cannot enable 
us to draw a positive conclusion. 

(Fallacy of non-exclusion) is that 
in which no instance can be found in SMWrfft as 
well as in because the possession of 

by everything is a matter in question. In the in¬ 
stance there is no TO? and no frrcj 

for the is ^ and everything that we can cite as 
an instance comes under q$r. It is otherwise defined 
as 

This ^3 is because there is no 

TORT in which we can show the of etfaSR* and 

Rtow. The fR that the ^3 is used for proving some¬ 
thing about everything prevents the knowledge of 
viz , *tsr Whatever thing we 

attempt to give as an instance remains as to its 

possessing the str since the ) 3 «|urag 3 K is not pos¬ 
sible in cases other than those included in <wgr. 

If we put the instance in the English syllo¬ 
gistic form the major premiss must be 1 Some know- 
able things are imperishable:’ because the major pre¬ 
miss which we get from of ^3 and 9 TR is wrong. 
We cannot say that all knowable things are perishable. 
The minor premiss is, ‘ All things are knowable. ’ 
But these two premisses do not necessitate a valid 
conclusion 

The difference between areiwr and is 

that in the former we had srrsrs and ftrcsrs; but in the 
latter there is no such case because it excludes qqrar 
from it. Thus we have no 5 RT& at all in 
while we had a in Or it may be 

thus stated:—In the ersTOirfr, ^ being the there 


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( ) 


are no *TO 3 and fcwjs while in the we have got 

*R$rs and farcffs but the ^3 has nothing to do with them. 

-:o:—— 

( Fallacy of contradiction) is that where 
the $3 is accompanied by or it is that which 

proves the absence of the SP^l. In order to arrive at 
the true eigfafa the $3 must be ; but here it is 

WWIWI and therefore the conclusion here is quite 
opposite ; that is, the 53 proves the opposite of what 
it was intended to prove ; and so it is 
In the instance * ' the is 

t. e.f and so proves the stfaSKar of 

fofcBlfaR*: 1 ^T. %. 

The instance when put into the English syllo¬ 
gistic form contains the major premiss which is evi¬ 
dently wrong because it is a false induction. 

N. B. According to the this I3 is 8131%%- 

*. e,, we have here sanfourcsiftsi;^, there being 
no of and ^3. To put it in the English 

syllogistic form, wo have two premisses viz., ( 1 ) No 
things that are produced are eternal; and ( 2 ) Sound 
is a thing that is produced. To draw the required con¬ 
clusion viz., 1 sound is eternal’from these premisses 
would amount to violatiug the rule that “ if either of 
the premisses be negative, the conclusion must be 
negative." 

-:o:- 

CTSlftW—also called —( Possibility of a 

contrary subject; reason which is counter-balanced 
by an equally valid reason ). ^Rrt=s?crTsr. 

g?srfa?3r is a % along which there exists another 53 
which proves the absence of that which is to be 
proved. 

12 


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( *• ) 


$rnp Prw: account Of ltd property 

of being heard. «TPPn^ does exist iir^t*^. is heaid 
by and so also sn^ri is apprehended by W for 

afasj*nft&ih)—In this example 
«rand this ^W' itfcelf )prevenfcs us 
from believing the first proposition^ -Thfotiwo $3S-*v4ztt 
and ?u«Rar prove the absence of each other's 
one proving the «ww of tho of the other; theiefore 
they are sifaqg with reference to each Other.* Hence 
the ic^RRt is properly called tiwftmj: We have here 
ifeftWra$, the kfP*ra«E^proving fam in ^ and T&tt 
proving in Hence if is Btgfaftsfinww. 


is only but ereranyi is 

s^i. 



The difference between ftiRf and ^Rsifowj itf that, 
.though in both, the i<j is spsrwTOrnw, still in 
there is another ^ which is and not the 

first 


Cf. ft —ftq^frar: t?r^t 

q m**: ( ^r. air; ). The word in the definition of 
is used to exclude faRfc 


Roughly speaking, resembles the Diale* 

mma in English Logic; 


srrcrac—An argument which is not ascertained to 
belong to the subject pervaded is the fallacy of the 
not certainly known or the unproved. 

The defines arturt as 

UU :~that where there is a certein property of a the? 
knowledge of which prevents is that 

which has the above fault. It is of three kinds 1 : ( 1 )f 
(want of proof regarding the subject); 

(want of proof regarding the nature of the arguitieiifidi 


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(\r ) 


!tb$ middle term ) and (3) san^rr^RT (want of proof 
Regarding tfieincluded; Inclusiveness from limitation). 

^ • (1 ) is defined as qsrarq^iqqjwrqqcq^qi:— 

This is a qta in which the q$?r has -no q^rarq’^sqq; a. <?., 
the thing which measures its q^rr t. e. which makes 
it to be a q$ ( srq^dqq;—Co-existent and co-extensive 
with j. Here nmfoRqiftftiBKfcq is the w in the example 
given in the text; and we have not such a q^r, as 
nobody knows a Here qsjcir does not exist 

dimply in srcfcq but in t. e„ q$rai 

prists in as marked off by nmftqeq. nntfiqcq is 

the TO<!N?d$q». qq^flq?q does not exist in and 

therefore the w*iq viz., qnqrd^q does not exist. The 
JTCW$ required in the above instance is gd*?«q«JRU- 
mrcrcfa^r. As we know that nrnfojcq does no£ 
lexist in wfcq, this qtrnd is impossible because it em¬ 
braces nr has in it* the connection of mnftqcq with 
which connection doe? pot exist. Henpe this 
is 

1(2 ) is defined as qgfagRiqsfiiqWt or more 

simply q^lc^nf:. Here the ^3 does not exist in ,q»; 
l. the Wi of the $3 is In the example 

given there is theswnq of the 53 viz., qrcjqcq in 5T^. 
This knowledge itself interferes with the qrwd ' jpRq- 
warqr^qcqqR 51 ^:, ’ because we have no knowledge of 
nqrajfar viz.^ ?qrajq?q qsft. Thus this I3 is qtwdr 
artdqfw. 

(3) sqrqcqrfd^ is a fiTqrffols. An sqn§ is that 
Wfeich is nr^qiq^ i. e. } more extensive than the 
and which is less extensive than the siqq or I3; i. e» 
it qxi?ts wherever the is but it does not exist 
whc rev sr «w is. r In the case of q^dl q|: the 

spfgl is.; tj^q^qhi .which is °qrqq; of ^ and of 

For the illustrative figure vide. Appendix A, 
figure C. ®qrq« is something which is not absent from 
the place where the is. So if anything is *u«q*q 


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(u ) 


anro then it means that it is not absent from the 
place where is. is QWW IWW i. e, t it 

answers to the wm existing in the place where 1OTI4 
is. ( adj.). 


N. B. The while dwelling discursi¬ 
vely on the functions of an ( Accident ) says:— 

srofocisft q&n a i 




I crfi ql4j;pjM 

3?T i is not to be connidered a in 

itself for what is wanted for 535P? is that it should 
prevent aigfafcT or its nw. The prevents 

neither and hence it is not a Why is it then 

that in the case of an eigitw of a 51^1 a afcl^r brings 
forward an ? It is brought forward by the sfcraSfr 
because it leads to the knowledge “ where there is 

53 there is not, ” i. e to show that there is eaPrare 
in the Thus we can see that it is not proper 

to consider the case of an as an independent 

V^wrcr. It serves merely to point out a namely 

which is . In the instance 

* the is as fire exists in a 

red-hot-iron ball which is characterized by 
The ^3 given will be a valid one provided we add 
a condition ( sqifa ) viz, e#*RS#i. So that, the qfo 
will be characterized by if the t3 be stated as 


that I3 which possesses the amiw of the 
distinctive characteristic ( measurer ) of the $3. For 
instance y* is not in so 

far as it has but as it is characterized by 

Here there is fdt ^3?l!TO5Wn*:, i. e ., t$f 
♦Nwwttw Jtffer. We can even say that it prevents anln 

as we cannot have 3 ?r and there being 


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( ) 


no atnft we cannot have the 
Hence it is 




There is one more whose characteristic is 

asq^fl: sR faH^f^K Here 
q&iwracq srrfer.This is included under Cf. 

«rKRTT5fEd^»PlR: ^TT^lSSimT^: I gpWTST- 

i *t«n «N*nwifessir^ ^rra^fr- 

m i («ft® ). 


Now we may proceed to the divisions of the sqrfa 
as noticed in the Dipika. 

(1) ferni'wi'w, e. g. } snsfcFrcwfa:. Here the 

is to be taken as it is and not qualified by any as 
in the following three cases. 

Another instance in point is f?si sfspfcr- 

fjfar ^I8i%n^. Here the is ftfWcqq awl- 

<n§: asr ftfrgtt ft ft «i^5?nq«d! i *»sr *r fafa- 

pit RPtss^gqiPt: ^rnwts^nq^:, q»^rt^Ri rclq5?qwis*TRT3 i «f 
flfclTcfrcfr ^ SWPqqWcT: ‘ 

I arm fiflifq * 3ra43H$& srafaw, orf4 3 

* 2*^1 (<?• $• ). 

( 2 ) q^#to^ai5?nqq;. In the example ?ng: sister: 

the sqrfa is ^Wc«i. If the ^sqrq«B?n be 
taken as m 33T ^cT^c^, it will not do. 

3TKHT is 1 . e., 8Rrcfcqsj^$j; but it has not got 3^r- 

*qq<q; therefore to exclude 3TRnr i. e ., cases of unresrenff 
we must take the *n«i as qualified by the q^ra4 which 
is here (<Wcra4 here means t*4:-any pro¬ 
perty of q^) Cf.^cT^qqcqgqifa: 1 ' ^r ji?i^ 

OTKcr^qq?^^ «t ’ *4 sqfSRrci^ ‘ ss^srffr 

*: qir^4^qf^vRf|:5i^5j^7 q^uftqf^wr- 

1 stiwi% sqfaqrcqrw*? ^ 1 ^ 


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< «.* ) 

(3) ^mrnf%gw^rq ^ e . ^., spsqdt kroft wrong; here 

: the 3 qir% is If the sr^atfqsgf be taken to be *nr 

*nroPtit will not be correct because fthe 
of a thing is forreft i. e. f erft?l and Still it is 
$cr. Hence the smatmiqqsqrr would be g5f 

wroi^, the w* being qualified by which 
i§ t£e W hero. Thu? stot* is excluded. 

Another instance in point is 
fiH ig g q re ig ^ nwfawrreg ag;- Here the is 
and in order to have the we must have the 

irrw not simply ^Tflfw but qualified by 

and thus crows and others would be excluded. 

(4) g. } nurnkt faircft wr 

Here the gqrfk is *nqeg. If the WfeMiM^r be 

taken to be ^ it will not do as 

shown in 3,; and hence the must be itake.n as 
qualified by which is a 

means i. e . 9 any property other than those ©£ 

the (minor and the middle terms involved in the 
??gnH. Cf ^rdi^% 1 q^j^rnwq^wrl f^i^: 

«jqiR®3 iR^tklh i.ftt. 

■ ■— :o: - 

WT^rar ( Fallacy of impossibility—-where the pre¬ 
dicate does not exist in a subject) is that^j the q^t 
of which is characterized by the amrq of the UM 
( *n*qmrcq?q^f>f srtfag:). In the sifts the serous is per¬ 
ceived by another sfflffl and not by k 3 1 * &v nitrons is per¬ 
ceived, for example,,by For instance #iqpw: 

5Wt7—here the is sifts since we know by 

means of Mutest that there is s?s?s in sf*g; consequent¬ 
ly the q^r viz., sfcg has the absence of qm- Hence 
you cannnot haye the conclusion that ‘fife is 


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(«> 

col ! d * Whatever the\g may Be. The qrfaflirq o f If pre^ 
vents* our arriving at the itself and hence it 

IS It is a fallacy of false induction. 

One important and interesting point in con¬ 
nection with the |<qrorcrs deserv'es to be noted. The 
stock instance of a viz., q$# * 3 ^ is 

cited 1 by some as an instance of a also; 

the being WTO ( as in wroc, q i qtcw i c -q i^ 
A question naturally arises how can one* 
and the same If be given as an instance for both 
viz.,; a and a fallacious one. The following is j 
the answer. In q$at q*r, being a mz* 

faqealf, must be The |^?cR given 

to 1 prove wamrov-viz*, q?u*TR on the qfois qiqnro*r. 
&ow when we say q§<fr we affirm that 

q% exists on qfo by and on the other hand- 

qjqiWRq is brought to bear SRTOR on qqa by 
this wwi?l- defends- qfo against being q%nr?t by 
BTCRRi, whilst q*r proves^ that qfl exists on q^r by 
t. e>, qq proves that there is a between q% 
and qfo So according to the definition “ qcflsqfaWh 
«li«UfcMwW'K 4 T m S: ScSfctW:” (Modern view), the 
%-<ci as a matter of fact is not But there is 

another definition viz.,- “ 

*Fni q$r s ” ( Old view ) according to 

which the %-q*T or any —no matter it may be a 
fl^J-is *K 5 rf^r. Thus the tf-qq becomes SSJfaqqr not 
in the sense of actually having a to prove the 

but in-the sense that one apprehends through 
ignorance that qm&WTcq is brought to bear *n«qmrq on 
qSfct, according to one who says a ssrftqglf is that 
which as he on the occasion believes has another 
to prove the flpajfare. 

XLVII. 

That which is the operating cause of 3 qfa/rl is 
^r«the mm of sqftfo sqflfaisthe 


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knowledge of the relation between a name and the 
thing which has that name. is the to and the 

animal seen is the ddt i. e. t possessing the TO- 5 ^* 
That a name I know of is the name of this thing 
which I see is sqfaft. 

is the wn of swr. 

3 qfal%=Inference from similarity. 3 <rr—C om¬ 
parison; recognition of likeness. STRfar—faradfarcfat- 
ssrfairafar:—Attributing the nature of one thing to 
another ( as attributing the qualities of a dr to wr ; 
extended application as dt 

^TRTt . 3 RRR=taking place afterwards. TOf=d%far, 

or ( d!fa?r, ard.) 

A certain man not knowing the sense of the 
word TOT has heard from a man who is familiar with 
things connected with forest that what the word 
«IW expresses is like a bull. Then he himself goes 
to a forest, sees something like a bull and remem¬ 
bers the sense of the qra*‘ * farcer \ Then he 
comes to a conclusion that the fa* which he saw 
must be the thing signified by the word fa*: 

fared! and dtTOat TO: WWR: Such a 

conclusion is called For the presence 

of the object with reference to which the sqfafa is 

to be drawn and the are wanted. 


XLVIII. 

The statement made by a being who tells the 
truth ( or a being of veracity ) is TO i. e., the w* 
called TO—‘ Verbal authority * or ‘trustworthy testi¬ 
mony, ' including Vedic revelation. *TTO is a col¬ 
lection of words. TO=Communication by one to 
another as there is qatft &c. In the TOW*, the conclu¬ 
sion is arrived at by our knowledge arising not from 
our senses, reasoning faculty, or comparing faculty- 


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() 


culty but from the communication or revelation by 
other pesons either human or superhuman, 

qq ( *Rq ) $tr 3 ^jt 5R qqi&lr: i 

SRqtfa: q*5 ffq SfWfM II II 

5TC=52trcre: 

In the wi called qq?R is the wr, qqHNfr: or 
qqsFqqqrofaferft is the sqrqrc and the is the q*s. 

A qq is the or has qrfrfi (power to express 
a thing ). is the convention in accordance with 

the will of God that a certain meaning is to be con¬ 
veyed by a certain word. is a word’s being fit¬ 

ted to denote a certain thing, sirr of the word “house” 
is its being adapted to give the idea of a house. This 
convention is due to the will of God according to 
the ancient Naiy&yikas; but the modern Naiy&yikas 
say that even the will of man has an equal power 
like the will of God. The cT^ifqq* defines *&RR as 
qqqqpfoaR*: *lf m :—That relation between a 
qq and a thing namely when that qq or word is utter¬ 
ed, the thing signified by the word stands before our 
mind, is #5R. 

Dipika:— 

The Mimansakas hold that is an independent 
qqi$ in addition to the ordinary seven qqms. The 
Naiy&yikas say that as is and as is 

one of the qualities of ‘Soul 1 it is included under 
the seven qqr^s and thus it is not a separate qqnl 
by itself. 

The Mimansakas say that a term expresses 
Only ; as when the word *tt is uttered, it is not that 
an individual of that kind comes first before our 
mind ; but it is the snftMira u e., the characte¬ 
ristics of *rt which come first before the mind; and 
that expressed or denoted by tbe term is 3Trf3?w 
only i. £., the sqfrR is brought in by implication only 
13 


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() 

since cannot be had without ( %fal=Mimdn~ 
sakds and others ). 

[ If we say that a term expresses individuals i. e„ 
a term is only denotive, then one will have to be 
shown all the individuals of a class that have been, 
that are, and that will be, before he will have under¬ 
stood the whole meaning of a term, and not till then. 
This will make the work of understanding the mean¬ 
ing of a single word endless. Again if one has been 
shown some individuals ( say, five hundred bulls ) and 
told that those individuals are denoted by a term 
( viz., bull), then his calling new bulls, not included 
in that lot, by that name ( as things signified by the 
term bully will be applying the name of one thing to 
another. Hence the theory that terms are deno¬ 
tative is untenable; and is consequently of no use. ] 

( Therefore ) the Naiy&yikas by way of correc¬ 
tion say:—Since when an old man says, 1 Bring a 
cow,’ we bring the individual-cow and not the com¬ 
mon nature of cow or nra, there is no propriety in 
saying that is arri^H only. It is better if we 
understand 511 % as 

The convention or with regard to a word is 
not merely on individuals, because if a word ex¬ 
presses merely individuals, we cannot say * nt: 

* 155 ^' since would express different indi¬ 

viduals. Therefore the is not on individuals 
but on certain properties. And since we cannot 
bring a snfcT before us, it expresses an individual 
( possessing those properties ). 

5if%uf or the comprehension of the meanings of 
words is effected by what the elders do and say. 
Thus:—A child desirous of learning language hears 
an (the eldest in the house and consequently 

a 5 i% 3 rc>) tell a ( second in age to the 3 . ^ 

and consequeutly a ) to bring a cow: and sees 


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( ) 


that the latter has acted up to the instructions of the 
former and has brought a cow. Then the child 
ascertains by wsajfelfa* that the knowledge which 
made the go out and bring the cow was pro¬ 
duced by the statement () of the Then 

the child sees that in other instances viz., sreanq, 
fit &c. &c. some new words are put in and some 
are taken out; and he afterwards apprehends that 
the word at has the power to express an animal dis¬ 
tinguished by ate, aw to express one distinguished by 

&c. &c. 4 Vfcjcj:—a^npire^PRsi^a: a 5 ra^aawta 
Wte =ai a aa aaiaaa a a i (Generally 

e^aa and are used to prove that a certain thing 
is a u e. } by that thing a certain effect is pro¬ 
duced and without it that effect cannot be produced. 
For Qf^asarfo and the relation between sira 

and the «anai is to be necessarily known; while for 
proving a asraa, this knowledge of the relation is not 
necessary. We must try the effect once taking the 
a>rca to be present, and once by taking it to be ab¬ 
sent and we must suppose all other a**as to be ab¬ 
sent for the time. In order to prove the of a 

thing, the rule is that whatever there is w there 
the effect must be and where the asrca is not, the 
effect cannot be. ) 

The says:—If you, O say that since 

the consists in something to be done, or, in 
ordinary dealings we have recourse to action, the 
child gathers the knowledge that what we speak is 
reference to something that is to be done and it will 
not have the knowledge of a Wl with reference to 
something existing, it will not do. 

( It is not that the which states something 
of the present time will not be understood by the 
child. Because in we use not only the imper¬ 
ative mood but also the Indicative and Assertive 
sentences ). 


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( l 0 0 ) 

The removes the objections of the 
on the following grounds:—We speak even with 
reference to present existing cases such as ‘ there is 
king in ' and even use such senten¬ 
ces as ‘ there is a bee in the blown lotus; ’ and the 
meaning of some of the words used therein he knows. 
Thus he apprehends the meanings of the existing or 
present words such as &c &c. 


u 




gift's w- 1 " () 


‘ The apprehension of the power of a word re- 
suits from grammatical analysis, comparision, dic¬ 
tionary, the instruction of persons worthy of confi¬ 
dence, actual intercourse, the supplying of the sen¬ 
tence (context), substitution ( or explication )and con¬ 
tiguity to a term of a known import ( or connection 
with well-known words). ’ 


—A certain function or power of words. 
sra-WT is that power of a word by which a certain word 
expresses a certain sense at certain time. or 5RFt= 
That (sense) which is expressed by the It 

is opposed to the ^ sense. 


If we say that there is a hut ( ) on the Gan¬ 

ges, then the sense which is connected with the 
primary sense ( viz., ) of the word «i*ir is attached 
to the Ganges. 

rftt is suggested to us by the and not by 

the itself; so only is there; the $rc<ir i. e> y 

is the expresses tffc not as the latter be¬ 

ing its conventional sense, but as being connected 
with its The of the Ganges is expressed by 
the srftfi of the word nnr and it is closely connected 
. with the bank of the Ganges and this sense is 

5T5R In every case the ^ sense is al¬ 

ways connected with the * 1^1 or sense. 


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() 


Cf . ‘—Implication is the 
relation of a word which has power and it takes place 
when the intention of the speaker is not understood 
by the literal meaning of a word. For instance 

If in this case, with reference to the literal 
meaning of viz., the current, either the connection 
of or the intention of the speaker is not obtained, 
the meaning of bank is understood by implication. 
This implication is the relation of a word which has 
power. Here from the knowledge of the connexion 
of the literal meaning of the current with the bank, a 
recollection of the bank is produced, and hence the 
.meaning of the sentence is understood. Moreover if 
the want of connexion (3T3W%) alone were the cause 
of implication there would be no implication in the 
sentence because there is no want of con¬ 

nexion with reference to the entering of the staffs. 


3T33*I U II —Indicative Indication ( Also called 
We have in that case when in the 

whole meaning of the word the original of the pri¬ 
mary or sense is not comprehended ; or in other 
words, when the sense that is expressed by a word is 
not the sense that is connected with the senses of the 
other words in that sentence under consideration ; as 
WIT or *pftrf?cT ( here gw:) ^ can¬ 

not mean here simply ‘couch’; also *rnr cannot mean 
here trtwi but (ap^t=Applicableness; con¬ 

struction.) 

(also called ) Inclusive Indi¬ 

cation :—We have! this kind of when a word 
retains its connection with its conventional sense 
i. e. t its own sense ; or, in other words, even the ^ or 
sense of a word is to be taken in the sentence; as 
gw: ^ f'cli: stofa-the men 


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( ) 


bearing tbe lances as well as the lances themselves 
enter. Also in the example in the text 
we must understand as expressing persons with 
umbrellas as well as their followers who are to re¬ 
ceive the umbrellas, but who have no umbrellas ( the 
latter is the 5553 sense and the former the sense ), 
Another instance in sforo.Also in 

does not mean merely crows but :—all 

those calculated to injure the curds. 

:—We have such a when some 

part of the primary sense is connected with the mean¬ 
ing of other words in the sentence while the remain¬ 
ing sense is given up ; or in other words, when, a port¬ 
ion of the sense is given up and a portion is re¬ 
tained in the sense of the 3m; as in the example 

This cannot be the same who was seen 
formerly. His belonging to the former time and also 
belonging to the present time are given up, or in other 
words, the property of ^ri’s being <15. and also being 
i. e . and are given up; and we are to look 
to the soul abstracted from existing at that time and 
existing at the present time and than we have an iden¬ 
tity with the person seen formerly. 

Another example is ‘ srwfa srsJ.’ Here 
f. e., 5 i 3 i that pervades all space cannot be the same as 
the i. e that which pervades this body. Both 

these senses are 3^. Here we are to leave out of 
consideration the ; i, e. } $mr and are 

to be given up ; i. e., we must give up the sqrfas and 
consider 331 as 35535. is sr3i as confined within 

the body or intellect through anrc or 3131 . ( 

ffam I ). 


2. e. f that what which leads to 
another sense. If we say ‘ A man is an ass,’ here ass 
is used in its sense; and the between the 


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( ) 


ass and the man by which the man means ass is the 
possession of the common properties viz., Stupidty 
and Dulness. utofa vqfa Ootw: gprr: 

or wpun®iFT3°iT**=Gunas brought in by *5$rnT constitute 
the between man and (camel or) ass as the case 
may be. This is or i. e ., on ac¬ 

count of the common property]; as 

arftRT 55^m. The ( Qualified 

superimponent Jndieatton) consists of the bet¬ 

ween the sense and the sense; as, e. g. t 
fife:—%^ tWM: g*ir: *TP»reR> 5Jcfta%.(We have 
such a w^irr where we use a word not in its primary 
sense but in a secondary sense. In the above example, 
on account of fife?q being naturally connected with fife, 
there is a between the ^w^g^rr: and sense). 
This ?Wt is always based on similarity . 

<ncq$=^R%gr—Import of what the qw says; A 
word’s being uttered with the desire of a certain sense 
being brought out. (argrre-Not attended to), cnf’wl- 
gqqfir: a^FitftagpIf youdo not take the ssrctfqqi sense, what 
the qw says is not brought out; or when the intend¬ 
ed sense is not brought out by the primary sense then 
we resort to the ssr^rfiiq; sense. The qrqq viz., 

^cTUT is ^ i, e., qfir and 

*rra:: ciTcq^m. Here qRq$r is q^jqqr &c. a °5fta=What 
necessitates or gives rise to c5$rnr. 
cTTcq^^=q5T%vqr qfa is ^qffiq with the of ex¬ 

pressing that sense (i e., q?sjqr&xgi) viz., siNt ^q^m%- 

qfa <^tnr q g qn%«i ^ i 

^RT^t-nr^T sometimes 5PR®T leads to the qr?q$r 
though the senses are many; as, if at the time of 
dinner, one says fpqq would mean only 

salt and not a horse . M'fe<°f=That on which one is 
engaged. 


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( \'t) 


The of words is admitted only by Alan- 

karikas. It combines 55$p>ir and For instance 

fairat $W: i Here the Alank&rikas say that they want 
to identify the with the 5RT? of the Ganges 

itself, i. e. y they transfer the properties of to 
tfnrtftt; the charm which they intend to infuse in 
their words is expressed not by but by 

*mrat The Naiyayikas say that they do not ad¬ 
mit this as it is ®SFIRI%!T. 

Words are of four kinds viz., (1) are 

such as have the etymological sense only; as from 

$ and ( 2 ) are such as have a conventional 
sense or sense given to them by usage as &c. 
(3) are such as have both the conventional 

and etymological sense, these two senses agreeing 
with one another; as and the 

sense viz./ born or springing in mud ’ too agrees with 
the ^ sense. Another instance is ( 4 ) 
are such as have one sense etymological and an¬ 
other given conventionally, the two senses not agree¬ 
ing with each other; as means a ( i. e. y 

trees that come up by dividing the earth) and a 
kind of sacrifice. 

is the power of expression of 
the 9t3*3s; as is the power of 

expressing a sense independent of the parts; the 
different parts as a whole convey a sense. 

XLIX. 

In order that a certain statement should be 
known there should be and be¬ 

tween the words used therein. 

—Absence of incongruity in the 
meaning is Inconsistency. So we have when the 

sense is not absurd. 


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( ) 

Contiguity; the utterance of words with¬ 
out delay. 

anqsfefr—Construction is a certain property of word; 
the not being able to convey a connected sense or know¬ 
ledge of consistent sense consequent upon the absence 
of any other qq; or one word must not be able to 
give a connected sense without the other; inde¬ 
pendence of words. ( ajq«jqrq^?q—Incapability of 
expressing the sense ). In the example ^ qfor, 
the word ^ has arraign with reference to the word 
sfor; or srftsr qfct qqFereqf^q^Fqqrc3qraq>cqi* 

arFRiqrri In '‘4foq: gqql qfcft" there is no arwrq as 
there is no independence of the words 41, apq: &c. 
arnsfar is therefore equal to qq*q qcqqrsirrqsrgm e^wqrsiR- 
q*q ^qqsqfoRffcTcq 9TWT i 4tfosf%—here q^ftqqsqi'^sqrf- 

dlqq^i^i^T. The definition, given in the text, of 
efafajT is slightly faulty which may be shown thus:— 
In the Def. qq*qqqF<R...qaq*j there is nothing to show 
that a Word should be with the word next to 

it. In the example, 4i?q: gqqt 4h has errafecr 

with.q^Ji^ though not with .are:. Therefore it is, use¬ 
less to insist that 4t has no aflq>iqrr. We must there¬ 
fore amend this definition so as to mean that for 
an^igr, the words between which it exists must be 
used together. The amended definition would there¬ 
fore stand thus:—qqw 

!rc q\q sq anqst^rr—A word’s being used along. 

with another word without which the ( first ) word 
does not make any sense. 

LI. 

The Vais'eshikas do not think that and 
gqqFT are separate sftfts. SFq and sqqrc come under 
etgqpr according to them. 

Iftq; qqqiqq i swift i airac* =q 


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( \°i ) 

The Vaidika ^ms are of three kinds:—(I 
5 ^ as s4tf^5T ( 2 ) JF5T:— anfairc- 

WFlR3tT* I as ^iRten ) as aTN: 3*3 ( 3 ) — 

( a ) gw as sffR# qq: ( & ) a?^:—stpii^i fttffaFf 

e?4*?? ffraq>: i as atfrifq^i (c) as wraroft 

TO (/%• ** ) 

Dtplkd :— 

The Mim&nsakas maintain that the Vedas are 
eternal as the an^rci, Rqj &c. are, and that they 
are not *. e., are not revealed or composed by 

a Spirit ( supreme of course ). 

The Naiydyikbs reject this view by saying: the 
Vedas aro since they are, like *TTCfl and others 

a collection of statements; ( i. e. t they employ this 
eigilFr to prove that, on the theory of cause and effect, 
the Vedas must have a cause u e producer, and that 
is the 35 ^, as *rrccT and others which are ^Nis have 
*?irer &c. for their composer. ) 

The Mtmdnsakas object to the viz., 

employed in the above eTjjitra and say that 
W&PflxjR is the aqjfa u e it prevents the above aisfafr. 

The Naiyayikas retort by saying:—An 3TOTT§ 
is q T * wi <g ffq q> . But in the above at 

we have not got for the 

because must not be wider or in the 

case of the according* to the 55$p»r of an 

sqifa; but really is sqrro as we can assert 

truly on the theory of cause and effect 33r qrfqgg^T- 
*Rq asr asr 

Now Gautama followed by his pupils or disci¬ 
ples known as the author even of the Vedas and thus 
33 is less extensive (ars^qq;) than the sqrfo Thus 
the above is not an 3qf® and consequeutly the 


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( !°'» ) 

the a?gfai% is valid. Besides in ^swe hear such 
authoritative sentences as: cfwiwRlct arx^^. 

-:o: ■— 

&c. 

The view of the Vais’eshikas :— 

Suppose a man says “ It rained in the town. ” 
Now the words which he uses are full cf meaning 
or knowledge which he want3 to communicate by 
the words he uses. We say that the words in the 
above sentence have s?f$tefr &c. as those in our sen¬ 
tences such as uiunre &c. have and thus are like our 
sentences. On acccount of such inference, we get 
the 9R produced by gsh i. e. } connection of with 
the words which are to convey that a?$ or meaning. 


srqftqt r T—anqfa: (;&.). An inference 

from circumstances; presumption or implication. 
The iffafass regard it as a separate swpjt. They say: 
when we assert that though fat, does not 

take food by day, it is necessarily implied that he 
takes food by night in as much as the idea of fatness 
does not exclude the idea of feeding oneself. The 
Naiy&yikas do not grant it and say that arefafo is 
only a case of afgura and can be proved by wtfcfaj^T- 
fo, thus:—^ i r^ns*j53[R& sfa I ^ ^ 

* i ^ 

^ arorfa i &c. 

Another instance of 3T«fh#— 

( %. ) when it has been ascertained 

from astrology that is to live for hundred years 
and from obsrvation that he has no house to live in, 
itis next presumed that, in as much as his living a 


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( w ) 

hundred years is otherwise impossible, he must live 
in the open air. ( This as being a fact of implica¬ 
tion is not accepted by the itfahnss as a case of ei3*lR 
or inference ). In this example, in as much as the no¬ 
tion of living involves the notion of living either in 
a house or in the open air and in as much as it is im¬ 
possible that he should live in a house, the other 
alternative being established, his living in the open 
air appears in the process of illation. ” 


—( non-observation ) It is one of the 
instruments of knowledge according to the *fo?fcres 
but not according to the Naiyayikas. 

When we see a to i, e ., when a ^ is actually 
making an impression upon our eyes we say that we 
have —$5 tos^^N^r^. We cannot have 

for tow* there must be TOremfa- 
i. e., TO'S’Rssfai (since the sfcrarfl of tow* is 
TO itself), that is, there must not be such a thing 
as TO making impression upon our eyes. The 
maintains that this TOjj'Rsf&i ( or rather ) leads 

to TOTWW* and is therefore a separate srrt. 

The Naiyayikas say that it is not a srrirtc but is 
simply of which leads to torpw*. 

Through TOgqafo alone we cannot have TO W P W$m ftr. 
The of which torir forms the faWRTT br character¬ 
istic is itself and hence torjr is cognised by 

that is given by ( or ). 

Thus it is not a swrirtc or form of evidence. 


The Pauranikas regard Probability ( ) Trad¬ 

itional teaching (ttfrRET) as other forms of evidence. 

Probability is a cognition dependent on a plu¬ 
rality of concomitances (), as for instance, 


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< V* ) 

learning is probable in a and a fifty in¬ 

stances are probable among a hundred while there 
is no anft necessitated. Similarly which is 

delivered in the form * ^ ', for, this is a pro¬ 

position derived through a succession of witnesses 
and having no determinate author. For instance, 
“ ^ / This, in the view of the Pauranikas, 

being ascertained as having been declared by compe¬ 
tent authority is not included under verbal knowledge 
( W.). 

Probability, so far as it involves a am%, is incl¬ 
uded under Inference; and so far as it is irrespective 
of universal concomitance, is not a form of evidence 
at all. 

Traditional teaching being a kind of verbal kno¬ 
wledge is included under Inference. 

5T SWPIFcft, I 

( fa© ). 

sfai fRRt asfarsrcrcsN smtorsi &c.— 

The Mimansaks as well as the Ved&ntins hold 
the doctrine that the nmm ( i. <?., acsrerc*?* ) of 
is known by itself *. e. t the SIR and its rightness are 
both objects of one and the same act of cogn ition. 
The Naiy&yikas are opposed to this view and say that 
the of the knowledge is known by a subsequent 
process. The facts that ( I know ’ and that 4 my know¬ 
ledge is correct' are nor simultaneous. 

The tffafePBs say: the belief-that “ the knowledge 
of is true ” is apprehended by the same cause by 
which we have the knowledge of ^; i. e. t those causes 
which give us the knowledge of m also give us the 
knowledge of the mm of Hence the 5iwi«t in the 
has Merest i. e ., that sn?n<H? is apprehended by thosp 
same means by which the knowledge of m is arrived 
at. 


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( \\* ) 

The Naiykyikas retort:— 

If the rightness of cognition is self-manifest, the 
doubt in the form of 4 Sr RRHR sirt r rt * will 

never arise. If however the argue that there 

is no real HR, then it may be said in refutation that if 
there is no HR there is no 35R (which latter is accept¬ 
ed by the schools as a kind of HR ). 

Cfl R, ‘ iw: HRPR5T|: ' ^RffoRir:, RRT ‘ 3R5T R2: ' 5% 
gRRRIR : ‘ R2Rt *Rrft'5fct 9T35RRR:, cTcT: * JilRURlSSilRi^ * 

sr ‘ 5R HR rrt r rt ' — HwiwKiw:, 
m 5rRPRR*:,—HR HR HRT- 

\ (ct. ) 

LI I. 

^n*RHRR[=( w^swnirtj R^HR*0. The knowledge of the 
sense of a Hm; as ‘ TORRH here RRHR is the R>RR and 
^nRRRf«ftRfarf% t. e. t the signified thing's being brought 
before the mind is the rtrtc. 

Bf. RRHR a m cf5T RRtfbtT: I 

Some regard rrr as a separate wr and under it 
are included rrrrrrh and fwjRRRi, which come nnder 
R^RR. 

LIII. 

With reference to a thing, RRR-dou- 
bt-is the perception of one and the same thing poss¬ 
essing a certain nature as possessing several inconsi¬ 
stent or contradictory natures as its characteristics. 

f^r sRfosoir rrrr?: wg- 
WgWRRRScRi RRR:, <RRRlf| HR ^R- I ( R° ). 

faR§R or WR is false perception, or wrong knowl¬ 
edge. 

*Rt4hRRI*°IR foRT 51% I «R«n4RRRR ‘ HR ' 5^% 1 ( R® ) 


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( m ) 

?rfe o-nm+Kiq: i Assumption of the perra 

tier by assuming the pervaded. It means proving 
that, Which is acknowledged to be true, to be absurd. 
Thus confutation () is the showing that the ad¬ 
mission of a false minor necessitates the admission of 
a false major premiss. The taken here is false. It 
is therefore a method of proof from an impossibility. 
The says:—To this the objector 

says “ There is but still there is no fire.” The 
says: “ If there were no fire there would be no t^T.” 
It is simply Reducto ad absurdum. Here we proc¬ 
eed from «3jpai to 

(tjMWRFt ) l If one were to admit sRrera, he must 

also admit ; but tpwre is an absurd thing as we 
know already that there is Thus itself is an 
or 8T5RI; but inasmuch as it contributes to 
our arriving at a correct knowledge it is treated sepa¬ 
rately. Bf is reduction to absurdity. It is a mode 
of reasoning, for the investigation of truth, by deduct¬ 
ion from wrong premisses, to inadmissible con¬ 
clusion which is at variance with proof, whether act¬ 
ual perception or demonstrable inference. The con¬ 
clusion to which the premisses would lead is inadmis¬ 
sible, as contrary to what is demonstrated or as con¬ 
ceding what is disproved.” (Col. Ess.) 

Sre 0 ! 3T 5R?cf | ^ | ( ) 

I (3f° i* ) 

LV. 

The feeling of something as agreeable is 

LVtI. 


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< m ) 


LVIII. 

is repulsive feeling; aversion. 

LIX. 

is effort; exertion. 

i sp?r%: I £F5T- 

ftlfo: I 5^ flreTCTft: l 3 =3 I ft°). 

LX. 

is that which arises from the performance of 
a deed which is laid down in scripture. ( Virtue is 
merely based on religious precepts. Acc. to the Nai- 
yayikas virtue does not involve the idea of a duty to 
society or of exalted obligations imposed upon man 
by human nature ). 

- feftafr I *31$: I. 

i sr ^ sr^rfcT i (<?•). 

LXIV. 

—Self-reproduction implies three kinds viz., 
Impetus as the cause of activity; elasticity; and the 
faculty of memory. 

—-Velocity. 

arises from Bijpr* or direct cognition and is 
the cause of recollection. It exists only in OHM. 

—That kind of reproductive faculty, that 
restores a thing to its former position, which had been 
altered. 

LXV. 

Action consists in motion. Elevation is the cause 
of conjunction with a higher place. Depression is the 
cause of conjunction with a place which is downwards. 
Contraction is the cause of conjunction with a thing 
which is near the body. Expansion is the cause of 


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( m ) 


conjunction with a thing which is removed to a dis¬ 
tance. Every other variety of cation is motion in. 
general, ( Vide, section IV.) 

IXVI. 







mrgqrqft fa^NHisiWKi^ 







wrecrara I rn: 9R^ ifcr i ( *fo ) 


LXVII. 


f^TCft—Particularity or ultimate difference.^rr^^— 
Serving to distinguish one thing from another. 

It is otherwise defined as am^HTsirtrT ^irifr^ft— 

—the feeling or perception of difference is 
such as is involved in expressions like ‘this is distinct 
from that;’ and the cause of that perception of distin¬ 
ction is difference. In this definition qrsf is inserted 
to exclude &c. which contributes not only to the 
perception of difference but also to other things such 
as 


The defines as a^qf the 

itm runs as follows: af^t aresi^ qrffcT i 

sigqrefotmf fatta 


LXVIII. 


Intimate relation lasts always and exists in arg^- 
f%Tgfs. It is the communion of two things whereof one, 
so long as they exist, continues united with the other. 
This relation exirts between atoms and what is formed 
out of them (of a whole and its parts ), between a 

15 


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( ) 

substance and its qualities, between an act and its 
agent, between a genus or species and its individuals, 
and between individuality and eternal substance. 

Cf. *FTO*<* I 

srar‘ firsr ’ i (mio ) 

In the all material things are destroyed 

but the TOmrand the sfonwrs are not destroyed even 
then. 

It is supposed that ai#s exist in such sirkis. But 
it may be possible that sRfrs like to?* &c, are capable 
of being destroyed. 

LXIX. 

ami* is defined as 3**£m: ami* by the * i** ffo *w. It 
is otherwise defined as amr*?*^ in 

the fa. *—ami* is that whose knowledge is dependent 
on the knowledge of its counterentity, to is the 5ifa- 
qifa of TOmi* TOmi* can be compreheuded only when 
we have the knowledge of to. 

In the $TO*aft ami* is divided into two kinds viz.* 
( i ) *fa*fal* and < 2 ) eNimmr*. In wfai* the thing 
has no Wi i. does not exist in contact with the 
thing before our eyes; e g.> *2r *rfar; or toto*1: 

mrft JTT%T ; i. e. } 52** ami% *cfa, that is, TO has 

no with to. 

This sfa*frTT* is defined as 

w*This again is with reference to the time of ob¬ 
servation—future time, past time and eternity—divi¬ 
ded into 5fimn*, 5ra*rmi* and aic**r[|*TT* respectively. 

sinmT* has no beginning but an end inasmuch as 
it is an ami* of a with reference to its condition 
before the production of the **$. 

sNsmi* has beginning but no end inasmuch as it 


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( m ) 

is an 8TOR of a subsequent to its production. 
has no end because a thing produced #. a ^ when 
desteroyod> will not have its like again for all time to 
come. 

areRiTHra or absolute non-existence is. that 
which has a the characteristic of which is mea¬ 

sured by eternity ( tera) and not by any limited period 
of time as by past, present or fouure; for example, SRTCZn 
which is an absolute non-entity does not exist in any 
one of the three periods of time. Hence this affliq is 
eternal. The example given, in the text., of \ 

can be defended by saying that the speaker refers to I 
the present condition or of the as divested of 
the idea of time. 

aNNrera is defined as 

that is, mutual non-existence is that swra which has a 
counter-entity the characteristic of which is. measured 
off by the relation of identity • e. g., tcl qat ^ t. e. t 
qaFt amra:. The sfoqtft of this aj*nq i. e.> qaflnq is qa, 
and sfailta is the of qa. qa being srfcrcift has nature 
of sfoUfaar. Bnt the sfaqiftar of the *pm that qa has as 
here defined is considered with reference to diqi?wwwF*fc 

" The causes of the apprehension of reciprocal 
non-existence () are possession of characteris¬ 
tics in relation with the sense-organs, non-observation 
of the absent object, and cognition of the absent 
object, 

The difference between and is 

that the perceptibility of the absent object is the cond¬ 
ition of apprehension of general non-existence,, where- 
eas it is the perceptibility of the substratum that is 
the condition of apprenension of reciprocal non¬ 
existence.” (V. T.) 

LXX. 

Difikd • 

Gautama enumerates sixteen heads of predicam¬ 
ents ( qqi$s): ( i) Proof. ( 2 ) That which is to be pro- 


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( m ) 

ved. (3) Doubt. (4) Purpose. (5) Instance. (6) 
Demonstrated truth. ( 7 ) Member of a regular argu¬ 
ment or syllogism. (8) Reasoning by reductio ad 
absurdum. ( 9 ) Ascertainment. (10) Disquisition, (n) 
Controversy. (12 ) Cavilling. (13) Fallacious reasoning 
or Apparent argument. (14) Perversion of facts. (15) 
Futility of argument. (16) Confutation, or failure in 
an argument. 

Our text gives seven heads of predicaments. The 
difference between the arrangements of the topics in 
the systems of and is not considered to am¬ 
ount to a discrepancy. They are held to be reconci- 
liable: the one more ample, the other more succinct J 
but both leading to like results. 

The views of the Naiyayikas with regard to the 
aim of their philosophy and with regard to vvhich 
every school of philosophy strives to achieve are em¬ 
bodied in the following passage :— 

Ns:: I 3HRRR.R l 

scSRRJRtftoRft gffiRrcfa q R qrR ‘ ' 1 g^qr- 

qs frRT: qs^?:, %fcF I 

I cI«TT q ‘ BTIcRT qi$ 9 ( 

«qq>) ^ ^sirq^fa i 

^ q arhr rt^t: \ 

?r qrarorq: 1 >r siR^cq^:, a roreiafrrafl frf «rs^t qf 
#*RR 5 WR|wii strt: qar qpumR: 1 

m q q qrqq^t 

^qrennwtf^ft %q?q *rc: 11 '* 


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( n*) 


53irt% “ crfa f^f^wrsfcr^^ ” 51 % gsoTtqrcwraircfr- 
^rcsrcr gfa'13?* i «ra ‘ <!$**: arc^gqforfct* 

51% «r* u (q. ff.) 

It might be said that the real knowledge of these 
categories that is to be obtained by a clear conception 
of them is useless inasmuch as it is in itself not happ¬ 
iness, absence of misery or any means to obtain them: 
but the utility of this real knowledge of the categories 
is not to be questioned, for it contributes to the kno¬ 
wledge of the truth of 3 tf?itr, and the when kno¬ 

wn becomes a means to obtain $RJ. So is 

as defined above as final cessation of pain, 
is the not being contemporaneous with the 
which exists in the same place with iself 
(5:^8 ). If we merely say 5:^# then the ordi¬ 
nary cure will also be ifoj; hence he puts in the adje¬ 
ctive is ansifcffi when there is no 5 rrc*rra 

of any to come or in store. If the words 
were not used, then this definition would be in 

the case of as the which has attained 

and which is contemporaneous with our 5:^ will not 
come under the definition. 



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Google 




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< m ) 

APPENDIX I. 

Ai A* 




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( li* ) 



APPECDIX 

I Q. Can the word be rendered into English by 
Category ? 

Ans.—The word though signifying general 
objects of knowledge means Category , although 
the term somewhat differs from the idea which 
Aristotle expresses by the same. According to 
him Categories are the most extensive classes of 
what is denoted by the simple word (the word in 
no connection with another). He enumerates 
ten viz,, essence, quantity, quality, relation, the 
where, the when, position, to be possessed of, 
action and passion. This enumeration of the most 
general notions may be regarded as nothing more 
than an attempt to exhibit in a clear light the 
signification of words taken absolutely in order to 
show, how truth and falsehood consist in the right 
or wrong combination of these elements. How¬ 
ever, as most of Aristotle’s Categories refer to 
classes of existence or to what is most nearly rel¬ 
ated to them, and as in modern philosophy, the 


i 


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( m ) 

term of category axpresses almost universally 
this meaning, we may safely adopt it here, viz. as 
referring to the notions, which express the general 
forms of knowledge or what is the same, general 
modes of existence. The Categories of the Nya- 
ya have a curious resemblance with those of 
Kant . ( Roer’s g® ) 

II Q. What is the necessity of including swra ( non¬ 
existence ) among the seven Categories? 

Ans.—( We quote from the translation of the 
flu* the discussion on this point ). If you ask, 
" Why do you say that there are only six Cate¬ 
gories since non-existence is also one ?” We 
answer : Because we wish to speak of the six as 
positive Categories, i. e. t as being the objects of 
conceptions which do not involve a negative 
idea. “ Still,” the objector may retort, “ How 
do you esteblish this definite number * only six ’ ? 
for either horn of the alternative fails. For, we 
ask, is the thing to be thus excluded already tho¬ 
roughly ascertained or not ? If it is thoroughly 
ascertained, why do you exclude it ? and still 
more so if it is not thoroughly ascertained ? What 
sensible man, pray spends his strength in denying 
that a mouse has horns ? Thus your definite num¬ 
ber * only six * fails as being inapplicable.” This 
however we cannot admit; if darkness &c., are 
allowed to form certainly a seventh Category 
(as " non-existence ” ), we thns ( by our definite 
number ) deny it to be one of the six positive 
existences, we thus deny that they make a seve¬ 
nth Category. 

Thus it may be clearly seen that the fcfRft inclu¬ 
des, in his six Categories, positive existences only. 
16 


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< m > 

But it is a plain fact that our ideas are concerned with 
positive as well as negative existences, and therefore 
the later followers of the Vais'eshika School are justi¬ 
fied in adding arora to the original number six. 





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Googfe^